Lobelia boykinii - Torr. & Gray ex A. DC.
Boykin's Lobelia
Other Common Names: Boykin's lobelia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lobelia boykinii Torr. & Gray ex A. DC. (TSN 34510)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135218
Element Code: PDCAM0E050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Campanulales Campanulaceae Lobelia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lobelia boykinii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Mar2009
Global Status Last Changed: 06May1996
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Restricted to scattered populations in the southeastern Coastal Plain with a few disjunct occurrences in New Jersey and Delaware. Approximately 70 occurrences are believed extant, mostly in South Carolina and Georgia; the total remaining population is probably less than 10,000 plants. The species' wetland habitats were once common in the southeast but are now limited in number due to drainage for agriculture and development. In addition, many southeastern wetlands are threatened by a drawdown in the regional water table, a result of intense development over the last 10-20 years. Lack of disturbance, leading to succession, is also a threat. Populations in New Jersey have declined for unknown reasons.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1S2), Delaware (S1), Florida (S1), Georgia (S2?), Mississippi (S1), New Jersey (S1), North Carolina (S1S2), South Carolina (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Scattered occurrences are found throughout much of the Coastal Plain, mostly from North Carolina south to western Panhandle Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi (Weakley 2008); three occurrences occur somewhat disjunctly in southern New Jersey, and Sussex County, Delaware.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is estimated to be approximately 252 square km, based on the occurrence of Lobelia boykinii in 63 separate 4 square km grid cells.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 70 occurrences are believed extant, with an additional 20 considered historical and 1 extirpated. Most of the occurrences believed extant are found in South Carolina and Georgia.

Population Size Comments: Few occurrences have been counted; those with the largest documented plant numbers have several hundred plants, potentially up to 1,000. Based on available counts, the total population appears to contain at least 1,500 plants, but probably less than 10,000. There appear to be dramatic changes in population size and density across years.

Viability/Integrity Comments: About half of the extant occurrences that have been assessed for viability are believed to have excellent or good viability; however, many have not yet been evaluated.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Sites vulnerable to drainage (many populations have been lost to drainage), and conversion of habitat to tree farms or agriculture. Also threatened by lack of disturbance leading to succession (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Likely over the short-term there has been a decline >30%. Populations in New Jersey have declined for unknown reasons.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Likely over the long-term there has been a decline >50%; many populations have been lost to drainage and habitat conversion.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Lobelia boykinii is an obligate outcrosser. This type of breeding system may limit seed production in small populations, as small populations typically have a reduced number of genotypes available for cross-pollination (reviewed by Ellstrand and Elam 1993). Also, inbreeding depression effects (e.g., lower seed set, reduced germination) are typically more severe in small populations of self-incompatible species, such as L. boykinii (Bates 1996, Royo et al. 2008, Moreno 2003).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Scattered occurrences are found throughout much of the Coastal Plain, mostly from North Carolina south to western Panhandle Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi (Weakley 2008); three occurrences occur somewhat disjunctly in southern New Jersey, and Sussex County, Delaware.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DE, FL, GA, MS, NC, NJ, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Barbour (01005)*, Cherokee (01019)*, DeKalb (01049)*, Henry (01067), Houston (01069)
FL Jackson (12063)*, Santa Rosa (12113), Washington (12133)
GA Baker (13007), Berrien (13019)*, Bulloch (13031)*, Calhoun (13037)*, Chattahoochee (13053), Dooly (13093), Dougherty (13095)*, Early (13099), Evans (13109), Houston (13153), Irwin (13155)*, Jeff Davis (13161), Jenkins (13165)*, Lanier (13173), Lee (13177), Liberty (13179), Long (13183), Lowndes (13185)*, Miller (13201)*, Terrell (13273), Ware (13299)*, Wayne (13305)*, Worth (13321)
MS Jackson (28059)
NC Bladen (37017)*, Cumberland (37051), Hoke (37093), Onslow (37133), Robeson (37155), Scotland (37165)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Cape May (34009)*
SC Allendale (45005), Bamberg (45009), Barnwell (45011), Berkeley (45015), Charleston (45019), Clarendon (45027), Colleton (45029), Florence (45041), Hampton (45049), Marlboro (45069), Orangeburg (45075), Sumter (45085), Williamsburg (45089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+*
03 White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+*, Black (03030006)+*, Lynches (03040202)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Black (03040205)+, Lake Marion (03050111)+, Santee (03050112)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Four Hole Swamp (03050206)+, Salkehatchie (03050207)+, Broad-St. Helena (03050208)+, Bulls Bay (03050209)+, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Lower Savannah (03060109)+, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+*, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Canoochee (03060203)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Altamaha (03070106)+*, Satilla (03070201)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+, Alapaha (03110202)+*, withlacoochee (03110203)+*, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Middle Flint (03130006)+, Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+, Lower Flint (03130008)+*, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Spring (03130010)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+*, Chipola (03130012)+, Blackwater (03140104)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+*, Escatawpa (03170008)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, 40-80 cm tall, with inconspicuous bract-like leaves. Flowers are blue with a white eye at the throat. Blooms mostly from May into August. Flowering is apparently dependent on fluctuating water levels.
General Description: Glabrous perennial from a rather short rhizome, simple or sparingly branched, often immersed at base; leaves filiform, often deciduous before anthesis; raceme open; pedicels slender, spreading, exceeding the filiform bracts; bracteoles none; sepals loose or spreading, filiform; corolla blue with a white center, the lower lip bearded at base; fruiting hypanthium subglobose (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).
Technical Description: Rhizomatous perennial. Stem slender, sometimes spongy below, simple or few-branched, 5-8.5 dm tall. Leaves sessile, subulate or narrowly linear, to 2.5 cm long and 0.5 mm wide, entire or with a few minute callosities marginally; leaves on lower 1/3-1/2 of stem commonly shed before anthesis. Raceme loose, delicate, of 10-25 flowers, the flower stalks filiform, about 1 cm long, without bractlets, subtending bracts filiform, much shorter than the stalks. Floral tube glabrous; calyx segments, filiform-subulate, glabrous, entire, without basal auricles. Corolla blue with a white eye at the throat, 10-12 mm long, lower lip usually pubescent inside and with 2 tubercles near the base. Filament tube 3-5 mm long, anther tube 1.5-2 mm long. Capsule campanulate-hemispheric, about 3 mm across. Seeds brown, irregularly turbinate, rough-tuberculate, about 0.4 mm long (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). 2n=14 (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from other species by blue corolla with tube 7 mm long or less; central stem leaves less than 0.5 mm wide, pedicels without bracteoles; subtending bracts present and plant perennial by rhizomes (Radford et al. 1968); leaves less than 1.0 mm wide or, to 0.8 mm wide (LeBlond 1993).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Lobelia boykinii is an obligate outcrosser.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Cypress-gum depressions or ponds, wet pine savannahs and flatwoods. Some sites have continuous, shallow standing water; others are only seasonally very moist or inundated.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Russell, C., rev. D. Snyder (1997); rev. C. Nordman (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Feb1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bates, M. 1994. The population dynamics of Lobelia boykinii. Unpublished proposal submitted to the Center for Plant Conservation. 6 pp.

  • Bates, R. 1996. The reproductive biology of Lobelia boykinii. M.S. thesis, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lacey, E. P., A. A. Royo, R. Bates, and D. Herr. 2001. The role of population dynamic models in biogeographic studies: An illustration from a study of Lobelia boykinii, a rare species endemic to the Carolina Bays. Castanea 66(1-2):115-125.

  • LeBlond, R. 1993. Letter of May 28 to Christa Russell.

  • Leonard, Steve. 1999. State conservation ranking recommendations for species included in the paper:Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908.

  • Moreno, R. 2003. Genetic variation in three populations of a rare plant Lobelia boykinii: A microsatellite analysis. M.S. thesis, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

  • Pence, V. C. 1999. In vitro propagation of Lobelia boykinii and Rhexia aristosa. Final Progress Report to the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden's Center for Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW).

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Royo, A. 1998. Demographic modeling of Lobelia boykinii, a rare species endemic to the Carolina Bays. M.S. thesis, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

  • Royo, A.A., R. Bates, and E.P. Lacey. 2008. Demographic constraints in three populations of Lobelia boykinii: A rare wetland endemic. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 135(2):189-199.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Sorrie, B.A. 1999. Species ranking for noteworthy plants of Mississippi (A99SOR01MSUS). E-mail of Sept. 1, 1999 to MSHP.

  • Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908. Address: BRUCE SORRIE, 3076 NIAGARA-CARTHAGE ROAD, WHISPERING PINES, NC 28327

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Sutter, R.D., V. Frantz, and K.A. McCarthy. 1988. Atlas of rare and endangered plant species in North Carolina. North Carolina Dept. Agriculture, Plant Protection Section, Conservation Program, Raleigh, North Carolina. 174 pp.

  • Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. The Society of Natural History of Delaware. 313 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2008. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, northern Florida, and surrounding areas. Working Draft of 7 April 2008. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2008).

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