Lithospermum caroliniense - (Walt. ex J.F. Gmel.) MacM.
Golden Puccoon
Other English Common Names: Carolina Puccoon, Plains Puccoon
Other Common Names: Carolina puccoon
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lithospermum caroliniense (Walt. ex J.F. Gmel.) MacM. (TSN 31946)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138196
Element Code: PDBOR0L040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Borage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Boraginaceae Lithospermum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lithospermum caroliniense
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Aug2002
Global Status Last Changed: 24Oct1985
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (14Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New York (SNR), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S4?), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ontario. AL, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NE, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ontario. AL, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NE, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WY
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NY Monroe (36055)*, Wayne (36117)*
OH Fulton (39051), Lucas (39095), Wood (39173)
PA Erie (42049), Mercer (42085)*
SD Bennett (46007), Lawrence (46081)*, Shannon (46113), Todd (46121), Tripp (46123)
VA Accomack (51001)*, Sussex (51183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Eastern Lower Delmarva (02040304)+*, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+*
03 Nottoway (03010201)+
04 Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+*, Seneca (04140201)+*
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+*, Shenango (05030102)+*
10 Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+*, Redwater (10120203)+*, Little White (10140203)+, Lower White (10140204)+*, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A tall, leafy, and hairy herb, with terminal cymes of bright, yellow-orange, tubular flowers.
Technical Description: Root stout, woody. Stems erect 0.2-1 m tall with 15-25 well developed leaves below the inflorescence, simple or branched above, villose or hirsute. Leaves linear to lanceolate, roughly hirsute, the hairs often papillate at the base. Cymes dense leafy bracted, becoming elongate and racemiform after anthesis. Calyx lobes flat, linear, hirsute with a slender midrib. Corolla tube 10-14 mm long, pubescent at base within, outside silky, corolla limb bright yellow, 15-25 mm wide. Fruiting calyx on slender pedicels 3-8 mm long. Nutlets ivory white, smooth, shining.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Flowers in teminal cymes, bright yellow. Calyx lobes equal, 8-11 mm long. Foliage roughly hispid.
Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: Dimorhpic pollen usually shed before the corolla opens. Occasionally cleistogamous flowers are produced in late summer with extreme fertility and seed set.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune
Habitat Comments: Sand hills, pine barrens, dry sandy woods, shores, and prairies.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: OTHER USES/PRODUCTS
Production Method: Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: Used as pigment source by native americans.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Apr1991
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bissell, J.K. & C.W. BIER. 1987 DEC 30. PRESQUE ISLE STATE PARK: BOTANICAL SURVEY AND NATURAL COMMUNITY CLASSIFICATION. U87BIS02.

  • Bissell, J.K. 1985. RARE PLANT OCCURRENCES AT PRESQUE ISLE STATE PARK FROM THE 1985 FIELD SEASON. CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. U85BIS01.

  • Bissell, J.K. 1985. Rare plant occurrences at Presque Isle State Park from the 1985 field season. Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

  • Bissell, J.K. 1986. Rare plant survey of Presque Isle State Park. Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

  • Bissell, J.K., and C.W. Bier. 1987 December 30. Presque Isle State Park: Botanical Survey and Natural Community Classification.

  • Bissell, JAMES K. 1986. RARE PLANT SURVEY OF PRESQUE ISLE STATE PARK. CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. U86BIS02.

  • Campbell, J. Fenton, W.C,. Majewski, J. 1987. Pollinators of Some Rare and Endangered Plants of Presque Isle. Dept of Biology Mercyhurst College, Erie, PA. Submitted to the Commonwealth of PA. D.E.R. Bureau of Forestry.

  • Campbell, J. Fenton, W.C,. Majewski, J. 1987. Pollinators of Some Rare and Endangered Plants of Presque Isle. Dept of Biology Mercyhurst College, Erie, PA. Submitted to the Commonwealth of PA. D.E.R. Bureau of Forestry. U87CAM01PAUS

  • Cusick, A.W. 1985. Lithospermum (Boraginaceae) in Ohio, with a new taxonomic rank for Lithospermum croceum Fernald. Michigan Botanist 24: 63-69.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Johnston, I.M. 1952. Studies in the Boraginaceae XXIII A Survey of the Genus Lithospermum. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 33:299-366. A52JOH01PAUS

  • Johnston, I.M. 1952. Studies in the Boraginaceae XXIII. A Survey of the Genus Lithospermum. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 33:299-366.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Levin, D.A. 1972. Plant Density, Cleistogamy, and Self Fertilization in Natural Populations of Lithospermum caroliniense. American Journal of Botany 59:71-77. A72LEV01PAUS

  • Levin, D.A. 1972. Plant density, cleistogamy, and self fertilization in natural populations of Lithospermum caroliniense. American Journal of Botany 59:71-77.

  • MacMillan, C. 1892 Dec 29. The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley. List of the Higher Seed-producing Plants Indigenous to the Drainage-basin of the Minnesota- River...Minneapolis.

  • MacMillan, Conway. 1892 Dec 29. The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley. List of the Higher Seed-producing Plants Indigenous to the Drainage-basin of the Minnesota- River...Minneapolis. U92MAC01PAUS.

  • Senn, H.A. 1938. The Canadian distribution of Lithospermum croceum Fern. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 52: 127-128.

  • Weller, S.G. 1980. Pollen Flow and Fecundity in Populations of Lithospermum caroliniense. American Journal of Botany 67(9): 1334-1341. A80WEL01PAUS

  • Weller, S.G. 1980. Pollen flow and fecundity in populations of Lithospermum caroliniense. American Journal of Botany 67(9): 1334-1341.

  • Weller, S.G., K.H. Keeler and B.A. Thomson. 2000. Clonal growth of Lithospermum caroliniense (Boraginaceae) in contrasting sand dune habitats. American Journal of Botany 87(2):237-242.

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