Lithophragma maximum - Bacig.
San Clemente Island Woodland-star
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lithophragma maximum Bacig. (TSN 24397)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136453
Element Code: PDSAX0M070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Saxifrage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Saxifragaceae Lithophragma
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lithophragma maximum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 10Nov1983
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Narrowly endemic to southeastern San Clemente Island, southern California, and currently known from 3 small populations. The total range is about 7 mi long and covers under 100 acres. Only about 30 plants are known, but current surveys are needed. Feral goats and pigs were a serious threat until the mid 1990's; the Navy reduced or eliminated these and now monitoring is needed to follow the plant's recovery.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (08Aug1997)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: California endemic, Los Angeles County, east side of San Clemente Island only in canyons (US Navy land). The total range extent adds up to only about 7 sq mi. The linear distance is about 7 mi long.

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: About 100 acres of occupied habitat are known.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Three sites are known from three canyons.

Population Size Comments: Only about 30 total plants are known.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown
Viability/Integrity Comments: Occurrence ranks are unknown, but due to the small population sizes of the known sites (a total of 30 plants are known), there are probably no highly ranked occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The main threat to this species was feral goats and pigs. However, the Navy removed these animals in the mid-1990's and the vegetation is reported to be recovering. However, this plant still suffers from very low population size and possibly attendant genetic problems.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Feral herbivores removed from island by the Navy.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: The long term trend was certainly declining due to feral goats and pigs but now that these are removed, the vegetation is recovering.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This plant is vulnerable due to presence on eroding habiat and small population sizes.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Lithophragma maximum is only known from three canyons on San Clemente Island.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: California endemic, Los Angeles County, east side of San Clemente Island only in canyons (US Navy land). The total range extent adds up to only about 7 sq mi. The linear distance is about 7 mi long.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Los Angeles (06037)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Pedro Channel Islands (18070107)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with basal leaves divided into 3 leaflets and borne on slender petioles. Flowering stems are 4-6 dm tall, bearing numerous white flowers, each about 1 cm long. Blooms in April.
Technical Description: "Stout perennial, the basal leaves truly compound, the 3 leaflets rhombic, cuneate; petioles to 15 cm long; flower stems stout, 4-6 dm long; flower tube campanulate, circa 6 mm long at anthesis including the sepals, 8 mm in fruit; petals 4 mm long, digitately incised" (Munz, 1974).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Lithophragma maximum can be characterized by basal leaves truly compound, trifoliolate; stems stout, 4-6 dm high (Munz, 1974).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Nectary disk often present in family. Seeds +/- numerous, small, and assumed wind dispersed.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Coastal bluff scrub and coastal scrub. Persists on moist, shaded, north-facing canyon walls. The plants may also have occupied a plateau area before the introduction of non-native grasses.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Nov2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Annable, C., rev. Maybury (1997), rev. R. Bittman 2005
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. California Native Plant Society's Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 338 pp.

  • Smith, J.P., and K. Berg. 1988. California native plant society's inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 168 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Determination of endangered status for three plants from the Channel Islands of southern California. Federal Register 62(153): 42692-42702.

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