Linum carteri var. smallii - Rogers
Carter's Large-flowered Flax
Other English Common Names: Small's Flax
Other Common Names: Small's flax
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Linum carteri var. smallii Rogers (TSN 528814)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128410
Element Code: PDLIN02072
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Flax Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Linales Linaceae Linum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Linum carteri var. smallii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2T2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Sep2008
Global Status Last Changed: 18Dec1984
Rounded Global Status: T2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to southern Florida, Linum carteri var. smallii is known from approximately 11 occurrences. Most or all remaining occurrences appear to have small numbers of plants. Its habitat is disappearing (major threats include development and fire suppression) but it is persisting on roadsides and the few remaining pinelands. Approximately 6 occurrences are found on conservations lands, but current management at those sites is unknown.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern peninsular Florida, including Miami-Dade, Collier, Hendry, Martin, Palm Beach, and Monroe counties. Also reported from Broward and Charlotte counties, but no occurrences have yet been mapped in those areas. Using GIS tools, range extent was calculated to be approximately 17,500 - 20,000 square km.

Area of Occupancy: 26-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, Area of Occupancy was calculated to be approximately 44 square km.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Eleven known occurrences (Chafin 2000).

Population Size Comments: Most occurrences with census data record small numbers of plants (< 50). At one site, plants were described as "common" in 1961, but more recent data is not available. A few occurrences have no abundance estimates.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by fire suppression and development. At least one site has been disturbed by ORVs. Also potentially threatened by roadside maintenance activities since several populations are located on roadsides.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Shade intolerant, disturbance adapted, moist but not inundated soils.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern peninsular Florida, including Miami-Dade, Collier, Hendry, Martin, Palm Beach, and Monroe counties. Also reported from Broward and Charlotte counties, but no occurrences have yet been mapped in those areas. Using GIS tools, range extent was calculated to be approximately 17,500 - 20,000 square km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Collier (12021), Hendry (12051), Martin (12085), Miami-Dade (12086), Palm Beach (12099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Everglades (03090202)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Caloosahatchee (03090205)+*, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An annual herb growing to 5 dm tall and with yellow orange flowers with long petals.
Technical Description: The technical description for the full species Linum carteri follows: "Annual with erect stems up to 6 dm tall, rather scabrous near the base or on stem angles throughout. Leaves alternate, narrow, entire or the upper glandular-toothed; stipules present as dark glands. Inflorescence of spreading, striated branches, rather coarse, sepals lanceolate, glandular-toothed, 5-7 mm long; petals orange yellow, 9-17 mm long. Styles united; capsule yellowish, ovoid, dehiscing into five segments, false septa complete" (Long and Lakela, 1971). L. carteri var. smallii may be distinguished from other members of the genus by styles united to nearly the level of the stigma. The var. smallii may be distinguished from the related var. carteri by its smooth stems, taller habit (3-5 dm), and its overall larger flowers (petals 11-17 mm) (Kral, 1983; Long and Lakela, 1971).
Diagnostic Characteristics: L. carteri var. smallii may be distinguished from other members of the genus by styles united to nearly the level of the stigma. The var. smallii may be distinguished from the related var. carteri by its smooth stems, taller habit (3-5 dm), and its overall larger flowers (petals 11-17 mm) (Kral, 1983; Long and Lakela, 1971).
Duration: ANNUAL
Reproduction Comments: Distyly occurs in genus.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Pine rocklands, pine flatwoods/savannas, and wet prairies, as well as disturbed areas adjacent to these ecosystems such as disturbed roadsides. Substrates include sandy peat over limestone.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jul1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, D., rev. D. White (1991), rev. K. Gravuer (2008)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 603 pp.

  • Gann, G.D., K.A. Bradley and S.W. Woodmansee. 2001-2008. The Floristic Inventory of South Florida Database Online. The Institute for Regional Conservation, Miami, FL. Online. Available: http://regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/search/QuickSearch.asp (Accessed 2008).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Long, R.W., and O. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida. Univ. Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 962 pp.

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