Limnodromus scolopaceus - (Say, 1822)
Long-billed Dowitcher
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say, 1823) (TSN 176679)
French Common Names: bécassin à long bec
Spanish Common Names: Costurero Pico Largo, Becasina Boreal
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100840
Element Code: ABNNF16020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Limnodromus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Limnodromus scolopaceus
Taxonomic Comments: See Avise and Zink (1988) for information on genetic divergence between L. scolopaceus and L. griseus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: With estimtes ranging from 500,000 to 700,000 on a global level and no concrete evidence of population declines, this species warrants a G5 ranking.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3B,N4N,N5M (08Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRM), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S3S4N), Arkansas (S4N), California (SNRN), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (S4N), Georgia (S4), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S4M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S4N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S3N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S4S5M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S2N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S4N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (S3N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S2N), Texas (S4), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4S5N), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S5M), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (SUM), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Northwest Territories (S3B), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (S3M), Saskatchewan (S5M), Yukon Territory (S3B,S4M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: northeastern Siberia, northwestern and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, and northwestern Mackenzie, east to Franklin Bay, Northwest Territories. WINTERS: from central California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, central Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida south to Guatemala, rarely to Costa Rica, casually to Panama; occasionally in Hawaii.

Area of Occupancy: 2,501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: An estimate. There is little data on home ranges and there appears to be no territoriality relative to nesting (Takekawa and Warnock, 2000). With estmates of close to 700,000 individuals (Morrison, et. al., 2006), this species should probably occupy at least 2000 square kilometers on a global basis.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: With a breeding range from western and northern Alaska near the coast over to Siberia and an estimate of over 500,000 individuals for this species, there should be greater than 81 EOs (Takekawa and Warnonck, 2000).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimated the total population to be roughly 500,000 with about 200,000 spring migrants moving through western North America, 290,800 moving through central and Interior Flyway sites, and 3100 through the eastern U.S.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: An estimate

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Degradatioin of wintering habitats may be greatest threat. Also potential loss of breeding habitat due to climate change.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: An estimate based on existing data. Ten-year studies show no differences among years in number of nests or individuals (Takekawa and Warnonck, 2000). Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the population trend in Canada as "stable?"

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: The species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America based on Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Count data but these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America (Birdlife International, 2014).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable to not intrinsically vulnerable.
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: May be vulnerable due to climate change.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Environmental Specificity Comments: No real specificity other than need for freshwater ponds and wet meadows for breeding purposes (Takekawa and Warnock, 2000).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Population estimates and trends are crude and could be better estimated with better inventories (Takekawa and Warnock, 2000).

Protection Needs: Vehicle disturbance on beaches in eastern U.S. has been implicated in declines of migrating dowitchers (Takekawa and Warnock, 2000).

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: northeastern Siberia, northwestern and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, and northwestern Mackenzie, east to Franklin Bay, Northwest Territories. WINTERS: from central California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, central Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida south to Guatemala, rarely to Costa Rica, casually to Panama; occasionally in Hawaii.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NF, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+
17 Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins in late May or early June (Harrison 1978); early nestings in northern Alaska in the first half of June. Clutch size is 4. At first both sexes take turns incubating the eggs; later only the male is involved. Incubation appears to last for 20 days. Precocial young are tended by male.
Ecology Comments: Little information on home range; in Siberia, nesting pairs remained in an area about 100-300 meters in diameter (Johnsgard 1981).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates primarily through western North America west of Rockies, less frequently (primarily in fall) east of Rockies (AOU 1983). Migrates northward to breeding areas, arriving late May-early June in northern Alaska. Southward migration usually begins in late July or early August, greatest numbers in August-September; juveniles begin migration after mid-August, rare before mid-September (Hayman et al. 1986). Rare but regular migrant in Hawaii.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: marshes, shores of ponds and lakes, mudflats and flooded fields, primarily in freshwater situations (AOU 1983). Nests on the ground in tundra and wet meadows, usually in marshes or grassy areas with scattered shrubs and trees near open fresh water.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Forages shallow fresh water and mud bars, probing into mud with bill. Feeds on insects and their larvae, mollusks, crustaceans, marine worms, spiders, and seeds of aquatic plants (bulrushes, pondweeds, sedges, etc.).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 29 centimeters
Weight: 109 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Little research on this species since the 1940s and 1950s. Need information on the basic breeding biology of this species (Takekawa and Warnock, 2012).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Sep2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., MINOR REVISIONS BY S. CANNINGS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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