Limnodromus griseus - (Gmelin, 1789)
Short-billed Dowitcher
Other Common Names: Maçarico-de-Costa-Branca
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Limnodromus griseus (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 176675)
French Common Names: bécassin roux
Spanish Common Names: Costurero Pico Corto
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101082
Element Code: ABNNF16010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 11151

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Limnodromus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Limnodromus griseus
Taxonomic Comments: See Avise and Zink (1988) for information on genetic divergence between L. scolopaceus and L. griseus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: G5 is the current NatureServe ranking for this species. But most ranking sites believe this population is decreasing so close attention to this ranking may be warranted.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NUB,N5M (08Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5N), Alaska (S4S5B), Arizona (S3M), Arkansas (S3N), California (SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Florida (S4N), Georgia (S4), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S3M), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (S2N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S4N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNA), Navajo Nation (S3M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S1M), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S3N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S4N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S1N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S3), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S4N), Wisconsin (S4N), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (SUB), British Columbia (S2S3B), Labrador (S3B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4M), Newfoundland Island (S3M), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (S3M), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S3B,S4N), Prince Edward Island (S3M), Quebec (S3S4), Saskatchewan (S1B,S4M), Yukon Territory (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Birdlife International's (2014) latest estimate is a distribution size of 1.65 million square kilometers BREEDS: southern Alaska, central Canada from southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, and northeastern Manitoba south to east-central British Columbia, central Alberta, and central Saskatchewan; from interior of Ungava Peninsula south (probably) to northern Ontario (AOU 1983). WINTERS: central California, southern Arizona, Gulf Coast, and coastal South Carolina south through Middle America and West Indies to central Peru (only to Ecuador according to Morrison and Ross 1989) and east-central Brazil (in South America, 97% on north coast, especially Suriname and north-central coast of Brazil between Belem and Sao Luis; Morrison and Ross 1989). Accidental in Hawaii. Nonbreeders may summer in winter range.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: With an estimated population size of 150,000 individuals and dispersal distances of more than 2 miles from nesting areas (Jehl, Kilma, and Harris, 2001), the species should occupy more than 20,000 square kilometers.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Despite the extensive breeding range, the number of confirmed nesting areas are few (Jehl, Klima, and Harris, 2001). The population size is estimated to be in the 100,000s though, which supports an assignment of a relatively high number of EOs.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison, et. al. (2006) revised his estimate down to 153,000 from his earlier numbers. Morrison et al. (2001) roughly estimated the total population at 320,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some to very many (13 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: An estimate

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Maisonneuve (1993) stated that a significant decline may be due to loss of breeding areas that have been flooded by hydroelectric reservoirs or dried out because of river diversion. Climate change may also be a threat long-term to its breeding ground.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: National Audubon Society (2014) classifies this species as having a slight decline but confusion with the Long-billed Dowitcher makes overall numbers difficult to determine. Counts of fall migrants in southeastern Canada significantly increased from 1980 to 1985, showed no significant trend from 1974 to 1979 or from 1986 to 1991 (Morrison et al. 1994). Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the population trend in Canada as "decreasing?"

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to increase of <25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Jehl, Klima, and Harris (2001) state that this species is only about half as common as several decades ago on the East Coast. This reflects just the last half century. The decline relative tot he1800's probably approaches 90%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable to not intrinsically vulnerable.
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: May be vulnerable due to climate change.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Breeding areas are near a major vegetational transition zone where tundra is interspersed with boreal forest (Jehl, Klima and Harris, 2001).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: A population breakdown of the numbers of this species compared with Long-billed Dowitchers is needed but would be difficult to do.

Protection Needs: Pesticde use and local destruction of migratory habitat has been attributed to declines in this species. Minimize disturbances to this species in national wildlife refuges (National Audubon Society, 2014).

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Birdlife International's (2014) latest estimate is a distribution size of 1.65 million square kilometers BREEDS: southern Alaska, central Canada from southern Yukon, southern Mackenzie, and northeastern Manitoba south to east-central British Columbia, central Alberta, and central Saskatchewan; from interior of Ungava Peninsula south (probably) to northern Ontario (AOU 1983). WINTERS: central California, southern Arizona, Gulf Coast, and coastal South Carolina south through Middle America and West Indies to central Peru (only to Ecuador according to Morrison and Ross 1989) and east-central Brazil (in South America, 97% on north coast, especially Suriname and north-central coast of Brazil between Belem and Sao Luis; Morrison and Ross 1989). Accidental in Hawaii. Nonbreeders may summer in winter range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to early June (Harrison 1978). Four eggs incubated by both sexes. Incubation probably lasts about 21 days. Nestlings are precocial. Females takes little part in raising brood, may leave breeding area in late June (Hayman et al. 1986).
Ecology Comments: Nonbreeding: normally in flocks.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates regularly along Pacific coast of North America, through interior prairie region of North America, and along Atlantic coast (AOU 1983). Arrives in nesting areas May-June after northward migration through U.S. and Canada. Adults begin migrating southward as early as late June-early July. Juveniles migrate later, seen most commonly in U.S. August-September (Terres 1980). Migrates through Costa Rica early August-late October and late March-late May (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Tundra
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: mudflats, estuaries, shallow marshes, pools, ponds, flooded fields and sandy beaches (AOU 1983). Prefers shallow salt water with soft muddy bottom, but visits various wetlands during migration.

Nests in grassy or mossy tundra and wet meadows, in muskeg. The nest is a shallow hollow in mosses or grasses, lined with grasses, leaves, and twigs.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Probes mud and sand (usually through shallow water) in search of insects (larvae of flies, water beetles, and other aquatic insects), marine worms, crustaceans, and mollusks.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: See Robert et al. (1989).
Length: 28 centimeters
Weight: 116 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: There is an apparent decline of birds migrating along the Atlantic coast but this needs verification. Ranges of the race are incompletely known (Jehl, Klima, and Harris, 2001).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Sep2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Rubega, M. A., D. Schamel, and D. M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). No. 538 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28pp.

  • Sauer, J.R., S. Schwartz, and B. Hoover. 1996. The Christmas bird count home page. Version 95.1. Patuxent Wildl. Res. Center, Laurel, MD. Online. Available: http://www.mbr.nbs.gov/bbs/cbc.html

  • See SERO listing

  • Semenchuk, G.P. 1992. The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Federation of Alberta Naturalists. 391 pp.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Sinclair, P.H., W.A. Nixon, C.D. Eckert and N.L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 595pp.

  • Stevenson, H.M., and B.H. Anderson. 1994. The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, 891 pp.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • THOMPSON,M.C., AND C. ELY.1989. BIRDS IN KANSAS VOLUME ONE.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Wilds, C., and M. Newlon. 1983. The identification of dowitchers. Birding 15:151-166.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1995. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Summer 1995. 8pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1997. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 1997. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1997. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 1997. 36pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2000. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 2000. 32pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2002. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2002. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2007. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall/Winter 2007. 20pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2008. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2008. 26pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2012. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2012. 15pp.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

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