Lilium pyrophilum - M.W.Skinner & Sorrie
Sandhills Lily
Other Common Names: sandhills lily
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161333
Element Code: PMLIL1A100
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
Image 10803

© Wayne Irvin

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Lilium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Skinner, M.W. and B.A. Sorrie. 2002. Conservation and ecology of Lilium pyrophilum, a new species of Liliaceae from the Sandhills region of the Carolinas and Virginia, U.S.A. Novon 12: 94-105.
Concept Reference Code: A02SKI01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lilium pyrophilum
Taxonomic Comments: New taxon (Skinner and Sorrie 2002) from the Sandhills region of the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Virginia to South Carolina, (most or all material included here was formerly treated as northern Lilium iridollae). The species is most closely allied to L. superbum.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Mar2005
Global Status Last Changed: 05Feb2004
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Only about 200 individuals plants have been documented at fewer than 50 sites. Restricted to an extremely narrow range and set of habitat conditions. Fire suppression and conversion of streamheads to fishing ponds, farm impoundments, and other uses has severely reduced the available habitat. Most populations known extant are on properties that are periodically managed with prescribed fire or where periodic mowing takes place along rights-of-way. Use of herbicides is a concern for populations in rights-of-way.

Nation: United States
National Status: N2?

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S1), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southeastern Virginia (Greenville and possibly Sussex counties only per J. Townsend) to southcentral South Carolina, wholly within the Coastal Plain; most populations are in the Sandhills region on the interior Coastal Plain of southeastern North Carolina (Skinner and Sorrie 2002).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Potentially attractive to collectors and photographers due to large, showy, flowers, yet less than 300 known to exist globally (Sorrie 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southeastern Virginia (Greenville and possibly Sussex counties only per J. Townsend) to southcentral South Carolina, wholly within the Coastal Plain; most populations are in the Sandhills region on the interior Coastal Plain of southeastern North Carolina (Skinner and Sorrie 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, SC, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Cumberland (37051), Harnett (37085), Hoke (37093), Lee (37105), Moore (37125), Nash (37127)*, Northampton (37131)*, Richmond (37153), Scotland (37165)
SC Chesterfield (45025)
VA Dinwiddie (51053), Greensville (51081), Prince George (51149), Suffolk (City) (51800), Surry (51181), Sussex (51183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Nottoway (03010201)+, Blackwater (03010202)+, Meheriin (03010204)+*, Upper Tar (03020101)+*, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+*, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with a flowering stem 1.5 m tall. Flowers are showy, pendant, with recurved tepals ranging in color from yellow to orange or dusky red and spotted with magenta. Stamens (6) are very exserted. Leaves usually whorled, whorls often clustered toward the bottom of the plant. Flowers late July-mid August. Capsules mature in October (Skinner and Sorrie 2002).

Diagnostic Characteristics: Among the generally southern lilies, L. pyrophilum is superficially similar to Lilium.michauxii but leaves are densely papillose-scabrid on the margins and (usually) on the veins below, flowers are not particularly fragrant (vs. distinctly fragrant), leaves are generally widest toward the middle (vs. widest towards the tip), leaves are only slightly paler below and lacking a waxy sheen (vs. leaves much paler below and with a pronounced waxy sheen) (Weakley 2000). Shorter in height and with smaller flowers than L. superbum. Weakley (2000) also distinguishes on the basis of the densely rough-protuberant leaf margins (vs. smooth in L. superbum). This taxon has been considered just a northern extension of L. iridollae, but as treated as distinct, the two are allopatric.


Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Old field
Habitat Comments: Almost exclusively restricted to narrow (2-10 m wide) transition zones between dry longleaf pine uplands and wet, wooded creeks and streamheads (Skinner and Sorrie 2002). Gregory et al. (2010) found that the species occurs on herb-and shrub-dominated side slopes and floodplains in streamhead and small depression pocosins, sandhill seeps, Coastal Plain small stream swamps, and wet, maintained rights-of-way. The species grows most often with Aronia arbutifolia, Rhexia mariana, Smilax glauca, and Sphagnum spp. The species can tolerate a range of organic to mineral-organic soils, but not sandy soil, particlularly on Ailey loamy sand, Blaney loamy sand, Bibb, and Gilead loamy sand. Requires an unusual combination of saturated soils and periodic fire (or disturbance that mimics fire).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This species requires some form of periodic disturbance to remove encroaching shrubs and trees. It is known only from areas that are frequently burned, either intentionally (e.g., for habitat maintenance) or unintentionally (e.g., due to exploding ordnance), or in areas that are mechanically cleared to facilitate human access (e.g., to power and gas lines). Skinner and Sorrie (2002) note that it is unclear whether mechanical brush cutting is an adequate substitute for fire in the long-term. Therefore, where feasible, periodic burns should be tried. However, the frequency, seasonality, and intensity optimal for this species is not currently understood (Skinner and Sorrie 2002). Where burning is not feasible, woody plants should be mechanically removed every few years. Herbicides (which are sometimes used to clear rights-of-way) should be avoided, as should any type of drainage. Unfortunately, managment needs for this species, as for many rare lilies, may need to include protection from collection. L. pyrophilum would almost certainly fail to thrive once moved out of its very specific habitat (Skinner and Sorrie 2002), but that does not often deter unethical (and often illegal) collection.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Lilium pyrophilum should have more than 25 stems occurring in high quality sandhill seep or streamhead pocosin with evidence of frequent fire or mechanical clearing.
Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Lilium pyrophilum should have between 10 and 24 stems occurring in a high quality sandhill seep or stream head pocosin with evidence of frequent fire or mechanical clearing.
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Lilium pyrophilum should have between 1 and 9 stems occurring in a streamhead pocosin or sandhill seep with evidence of frequent fire or mechanical clearing. Fewer stems occurring in a high quality community should be ranked here.
Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Lilium pyrophilum should have fewer than 2 stems occurring in a poor quality streamhead pocosin or sandhill seep with evidence of shrub encroachment due to a lack of fire or mechanical clearing.
Justification: The rank specifications for Lilium pyrophilum are based on current occurrences and expert opinion. Over half of the populations of L. pyrophilum have 1-2 stems reported; this may be due to the difficulty of finding the plants among shrubs, especially when not in flower, or may indicate a naturally low population density. Plants may not flower or send up a vegetative shoot every year. The distinction between C and D ranks is based on habitat quality; populations are not likely to persist in the absence of fire or other method of shrub clearing.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 15Dec2004
Author: Amoroso, J.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: NCHP
Management Information Edition Date: 27Jul2004
Management Information Edition Author: Maybury, K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Aug2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): K. Maybury; rev. by. M. Buchanan 2010

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Douglas, N., W. Wall, Q. Xiang, W. Hoffman, T. Wentworth, J. Grey, and M. Hohmann, 2011. Recent vicariance and the origin of the rare, edaphically specialized Sandhills lily, Lilium pyrophilum (Liliaceae): evidence from phylogenetic and coalescent analyses. Molecular Ecology (2011) 20, 2901-2915.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Gregory, C., R. Braham, G. Blank, and J. Stucky, 2010. Habitat and Search Criteria of the Rare Sandhills Lily, Lilium pyrophilum M. W. Skinner and Sorrie. Castanea 75:2.

  • Skinner, M.W. and B.A. Sorrie. 2002. Conservation and ecology of Lilium pyrophilum, a new species of Liliaceae from the Sandhills region of the Carolinas and Virginia, U.S.A. Novon 12: 94-105.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

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