Ligustrum sinense - Lour.
Chinese Privet
Other Common Names: Chinese privet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ligustrum sinense Lour. (TSN 32979)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139479
Element Code: PDOLE07070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Olive Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Oleaceae Ligustrum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ligustrum sinense
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
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United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GAexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, OKexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, VAexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Medium
Rounded I-Rank: High
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Ligustrum sinense alters community structure and composition by creating a dense shrub layer that shades plant species in lower layers (Batcher et al. 2000). It threatens the globally rare and federally endangered plant Schweinitz's sunflower (Helianthus schweinitzii) (Urbatsch 2000). It is reported as invasive in six southeastern states (Miller et al. 2003), where it can infest pinelands, hammocks, river and stream floodplains, lake shores, edges of swamps and marshes, bottomland forests, and woodlands (CAIP; Batcher et al. 2000; Campbell and Fenderson 1995). L. sinense produces large quantities of fruit, which are eaten by birds (Batcher et al. 2000, Urbatsch 2000). It may be controlled in three to five years using a combination of mechanical and chemical treatments (Batcher et al. 2000).
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low
I-Rank Review Date: 11Mar2004
Evaluator: Heffernan, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eurasia to Malaysia to tropical Australia (Randall 2004)

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Common invader of cultivated landscapes, disturbed areas, and wildlands throughout the US (Batcher et al. 2000) A major threat to natural landscapes (Urbatsch 2000).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Bogs, wetlands, floodplains, calcareous glades and barrens, mesic hardwood forests (Batcher et al. 2000) Invading the habitat of federally-endangered Schweintz's sunflower (Helianthus schweinitzii) (Urbatsch 2000).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: None reported in referenced literature (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: Dense shrub layer displaces native herbs and shrubs (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High significance
Comments: Increased shade reduces ground layer species (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:High significance
Comments: Threatens habitat of federally-endangered Schweintz's sunflower (Helianthus schweinitzii) (Urbatsch 2000) and the globally rare Miccosukee gooseberry (Ribes echinellum) (CAIP).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High significance
Comments: Seven globally rare species: Helianthus schweinitzii (Urbatsch 2000), Ribes echinellum (CAIP), Astragalus bibullatus, Dalea foliosa; Echinacea tennesseensis, Talinum calcaricum (Campbell and Fenderson 1995), and one globally rare community (Campbell and Fenderson 1995).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Southeastern states and most Mid-Atlantic states (Kartesz and Meacham 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: Reported as invasive in six southeastern states (Miller et al. 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: A minimum of 15 TNC ecoregions (Heffernan, pers. obs., using USDA-NRCS 2004; Slaats 1999).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:High significance
Comments: Pinelands, hammocks, river and stream floodplains, lake shores, edges of swamps and marshes, bottomland forests, woodlands (CAIP; Batcher et al. 2000; Campbell and Fenderson 1995).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown
Comments: No data.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Appears to have invaded most of its potential range (Kartesz and Meacham 1999. USDA-NRCS 2004; Heffernan pers. obs. 2004).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Fruits eaten by birds (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000; CAIP).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown
Comments: No data in referenced literature (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000; CAIP).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:High significance
Comments: Can invade undisturbed natural areas, outcompete the native vegetation, and remain persistent there for many years (Batcher et al. 2000; CAIP). Natural disturbances provide opportunities of colonization by this species (Urbatsch 2000).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown
Comments: No data in referenced literature (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000; CAIP).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High significance
Comments: Prolific seed production, resprouts vigorously from cutting, vegetative and sexual reproduction (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000; CAIP).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Moderate significance
Comments: Glyphosate herbicide and cut-stump method (Batcher et al. 2000). Control difficulty similiar to Elaeagnus umbellata (Heffernan pers. obs. 2004).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance
Comments: Three to five years minimum (Batcher et al. 2000; Heffernan pers. obs. 2004).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Insignificant
Comments: Relatively minimum, although some impact from non-selective herbicide glyphosate (Batcher et al. 2000; Heffernan pers. obs. 2004).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Insignificant
Comments: Not reported as a problem in referenced literature (Batcher et al. 2000; Urbatsch 2000; CAIP).
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Batcher, M.S., M. Tu, B. Meyers-Rice & J. M. Randall. 2000. Element stewardship abstract: Ligustrum spp. The Nature Conservancy. Available at http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/ligu_sp.rtf (accessed February 2004). 10 p.

  • Campbell, D.L. and J. Fenderson. 1995. Weed report: Ligustrum sinense Lour. The Nature Conservancy.

  • Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (CAIP). No date. University of Florida. Available at http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/ligsin.pdf (accessed February 2004). 2 p.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Miller, J.H., E.B. Chambliss, and C.T. Bargeron. 2002. Invasive plants of the thirteen southern states. Bugwood Network. Available online at: http://www.invasive.org/seweeds.cfm (accessed 2004).

  • Randall, R. 2004. Global Compendium of Weeds. Department of Agriculture of Western Australia. Available at http://www.hear.org/gcw/index.html (accessed February 2004).

  • Slaats, J. 1999. TNC ecoregions and divisions map. Available at http://gis.tnc.org/data/MapbookWebsite/map_page.php?map_id=9 (accessed February 2004).

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov) . National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

  • United States Department of Agriculture. 1990. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1475. Available at http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html (accessed February 2004).

  • Urbatch, L. 2000. Plant guide: Chinese privet. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_lisi.pdf (accessed February 2004). 5 p.

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