Ligustrum ovalifolium - Hassk.
California Privet
Other Common Names: California privet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. (TSN 32977)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152053
Element Code: PDOLE07050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Olive Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Oleaceae Ligustrum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ligustrum ovalifolium
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (13Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), Texas (SNA), Virginia (SNA)
Canada Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, TXexotic, VAexotic
Canada ONexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This species of privet seems to be only infrequently naturalized and then in disturbed, low-quality sites or persisting from former cultivation.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 10Apr2006
Evaluator: K. Maybury
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Japan

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No evidence of significant impacts on abiotic processes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance
Comments: This species appears to be only sparingly naturalized and occassionally persisting in old homesites. There is no evidence that this occurs frequently or densely enough to alter vegetation structure in any significant way. Considered "accidental" in Missouri prairies, where can become problematic in unburned areas (Ladd and Churchwell 1999), presumably because it can overtop and take over the herbaceous vegetation in these areas.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance
Comments: This species appears to be only sparingly naturalized and occassionally persisting in old homesites. There is no evidence that this occurs frequently or densely enough to alter composition in any significant way. Considered "accidental" in Missouri prairies, where can become problematic in unburned areas (Ladd and Churchwell 1999), presumably because succession in these areas will alter the herbaceous vegetation.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No evidence of disproportionate impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Very sparingly naturalized and usually or always in human-disturbed sites. Characterized as being found (rarely) in disturbed places in parts of the southeastern U.S. (Weakley 2006) and in Florida (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). In California, the only collections are from distrurbed fields and persisting at old homesites in California (Ertter 2003). Similarly, in Michigan only known from an area where fill had been placed (Voss 1996). Found in Missouri prairies but only considered an "accidental" there (Ladd and Churchwell 1999).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: The generalized range is fairly large, with some naturalized occurrences from NY and MI south through MO, KY, and NC and sporadic escapes elsewhere (FL, AL, TX, CA) (J. Kartesz, 2005 draft distribution data).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Although identifying privets to the species level can be dificult, it appears that L. ovalifolium is has naturalized only very infrequently throughout its generalized range (J. Kartesz, 2005 draft distribution data). Some reports are simply plants that have persisted where planted at old homesites. Weakley (2006) and Wunderlin and Hansen (2003) indicate that this species is rare in the Southeast. Thre is only one collection each from Ohio and Michigan (Cooperrider 1995, Voss 1996), with the Michigan plant(s) growing on fill (Voss 1996). Perhaps most problematic in the northeast? Noted as "occassionally escaped to roadsides and thickets" in Pennsylvania (Rhoades and McKinley 1993). However, not nearly as commonly naturalized in the northeast as Ligustrum vulgare and L. obtusifolium (Gleason and Cronquist 1991; IPANE, no date).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Moderate significance

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Prairies, old fields/old lawns, roadsides.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Insignificant

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Unknown but assumed not expanding in all directions nor declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Privet seeds are eaten and transported long distances by birds (Batcher 2000). This species may also be sold as a hedge plant, (although it appears to be much more popular for landscaping in the U.K. than in the U.S.).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Unknown but assumed expansion, if any, is not extremely rapid.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Very sparingly naturalized and usually or always in relatively open human-disturbed sites. Characterized as being found (rarely) in disturbed places in parts of the southeastern U.S. (Weakley 2006) and in Florida (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). In California, the only collections are from distrurbed fields and persisting at old homesites in California (Ertter 2003). Similarly, in Michigan only known from an area where fill had been placed (Voss 1996). Found in Missouri prairies but only considered an "accidental" there (Ladd and Churchwell 1999).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Naturalized in the British Isles (Stace 1997) but presumably in similar situations.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Ligustrum species in general resprout readily and produce fairly abundant seed (pers. obs. and see Batcher 2000).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Foliar herbicides or cutting and manually applying herbicide to the stump should be effective where management is needed (see Batcher 2000).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred. Control in the localized sites where this species is found should not take longer than 2 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Insignificant
Comments: Inferred.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High significance
Comments: Privets were widely planted in the past as a hedge plant. They are still used for hedging and many plants are on private lands.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Batcher, M. S. 2000. Element stewardship abstract for Ligustrum spp. - Privet. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

  • Ertter, B., editor. 2003. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. Initial editorial analysis. Jepson Flora Project: Index to California Plant Names. Online: hppt://ucjeps.berkeley.edu.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • IPANE [Invasive Plant Atlas of New England]. No date. Ligustrum obtusifolium. Online: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane. Accessed 2006.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Ladd, D. and B. Churchwell. 1999. Ecological and floristic assessment of Missouri Prairie Foundation lands. The Nature Conservancy, Missouri Field Office, St. Louis. [http://www.moprairie.org/floristic/index.html]

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA. 636 pp.

  • Stace, C. 1997. New Flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 622 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

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