Ligustrum lucidum - Ait. f.
Glossy Privet
Other Common Names: glossy privet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f. (TSN 503450)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147021
Element Code: PDOLE07030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Olive Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Oleaceae Ligustrum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ligustrum lucidum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
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United States Alabama (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Texas (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, FLexotic, GA, LAexotic, MDexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, TXexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Ligustrum lucidum is a shrub or small tree that is widely planted as a hedge. It is apparently having fewer impacts than some other privets in the U.S. but has become established in scattered locations in the southeastern states and California, and is also present in Arizona and Hawaii. It can form dense thickets. Habitats it invades include forests, especially lowland forests, areas near streams, and disturbed sites. It is still available for sale and has very abundant seeds. It resprouts readily when damaged. Control is moderately difficult. Based on the information found in the literature, Ligustrum lucidum is currently less problematic in the U.S. than it is in Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. This species should be closely monitored as it has shown the behavior of invading communities with little disturbance in other countries.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 01Nov2008
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: China (USDA ARS 2008)

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Invades both lowland and upland southern forest habitats but more abundant in lowlands (Miller 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of changes in abiotic ecosystem processes or system-wide parameters found in the literature; assumption is that any alterations are not high or moderate.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: A shrub or small tree that grows to 10 meters in height or more (Miller 2003; Weber 2003). It is shade tolerant and can form dense thickets (Miller 2003).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Moderate significance
Comments: It is shade tolerant and can form dense thickets (Miller 2003). In Australia and New Zealand, it can invade closed forests where gaps occur and forms dense thickets that displace native species (Weber 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of disproportionate impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not high or moderate.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Occurs in lowland and upland southern forest habitats (Miller 2003). In northern California, occurs in dense alder forest along a stream, along stream banks, and in moist habitats (Baldwin et al. 2008; Hrusa et al. 2002). In southern California, occurs at spring edges (Consortium of California Herbaria 2008). At least some of these communities may be of conservation significance or harbor species of conservation significance but apparently it is not often threatening elements of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Established in scattered counties in eastcoast states from Maryland to Texas and also California and Arizona (J. Kartesz, unpublished data). Found to be naturalized on the island of Hawaii in 2001 (Staples et al. 2003).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: Listed as a category I plant in Florida meaning that it is altering native plant communities by displacing native species and changing community structures (FLEPPC 2007). Occasional in Florida (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). Rare in North Carolina (Weakely 2008). In California, present in less than 5% of riparian ecotypes (Newhouser 2004).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Moderate significance
Comments: Inferred from distribution as currently understood (J. Kartesz, unpublished data; TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Invades both lowland and upland southern forest habitats but more abundant in lowlands (Miller 2003). In Florida, occurs in disturbed sites (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). In North Carolina, occurs in disturbed places (Weakley 2008). In northern California, occurs in dense alder forest along a stream, along stream banks, and in moist habitats (Baldwin et al. 2008; Hrusa et al. 2002). In southern California, occurs at spring edges and near residential or park development (Consortium of California Herbaria 2008).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: It is still available for sale. Occurs in disturbed areas (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003; Weakley 2008); assumption is that disturbed areas are not declining and therefore this species' total range is not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and J. Kartesz, unpublished data.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Still sold as an ornamental. Drupes dispersed by birds and other animals (Miller 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: Occurs in disturbed areas (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003; Weakley 2008); assumption is that disturbed areas are not decreasing or remaining stable and therefore this species' local range is not decreasing or remaining stable.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Moderate significance
Comments: In Argentina, Ligustrum lucidum invades natural communities with little or no disturbance (Gurvich et al. 2005). In Australia and New Zealand, it can invade closed forests where gaps occur and germinate in the shade then rapidly grow when the canopy is opened (Weber 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Moderate significance
Comments: In Australia and New Zealand it invades forests, forest edges, and coastal cliffs (Weber 2003). In Argentina, it invades montane woodlands (Gurvich et al. 2005), montane secondary forest (Aragon and Groom 2003), subtropical humid forest (Dascanio et al. 1994), subtropical wetlands (Newhouser 2004), and riparian forests (Matthews and Brand 2005).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: A large tree may produce 3 million or more seeds (Newhouser 2004). Dense infestations may produce more than 1000 seeds per square meter (Newhouser 2004). Plants resprout from the root crown when damaged (Weber 2003). It is capable of germinating from both fallen fruits and dispersed seeds (Aragon and Groom 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Foliar sprays and for taller stems, cut stump application of herbicides are the recommended control methods (Miller 2003). For small populations of young plants, hand pulling or repeated mowing and cutting may be effective (Batcher 2000). Plants resprout from the root crown when damaged (Weber 2003).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Low significance
Comments: In Australia, seeds were found to be relatively short lived with more than 95% not viable after 12 months (Panetta 2000). Based on difficulty of management, assumption is that control requires more than 2 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Herbicides may impact non-target species (Miller 2003).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Widely planted as an ornamental (Miller 2003); assumption is accessibility may be a problem.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aragon, R., and M. Groom. 2003. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types. Rev. Biol. Trop 51(1): 59-70.

  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken eds. 2008. Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available:
    http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange/ (accessed 2008).

  • Batcher, M. S. 2000. Element stewardship abstract for Ligustrum spp. - Privet. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

  • Consortium of California Herbaria. 2008. Online database of vascular plant specimens in California herbaria. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/ (accessed 2008).

  • Dirr, M.A. 1990. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes Publishing Company, Champaign, Illinois. 1007 pp.

  • Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC). 2007. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2007 List of Invasive Species. Online. Available: http://www.fleppc.org/list/07list_ctrfld.pdf (accessed 2008).

  • Global Invasive Species Database. 2006. Ligustrum lucidum. Online. Available: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=621&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN (accessed 27 October 2008).

  • Gurvich, D.E., P.A. Tecco, and S. Díaz. 2005. Plant invasions in undisturbed ecosystems: The triggering attribute approach. Journal of Vegetation Science 16(6): 723-728.

  • Hrusa, F., B. Ertter, A. Sanders, G. Leppig, and E. Dean 2002. Catalogue of non-native vascular plants occurring spontaneously in California beyond those addressed in the Jepson Manual - - Part I. Madrono 49(2): 61-98.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Matthews, S. and K. Brand. 2005. South America invaded: the growing danger of invasive alien species. Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP). 80 pp. [http://www.gisp.org/publications/invaded/index.asp]

  • Miller, J.H. 2003. Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 pp.

  • Newhouser, M. 2004. Ligustrum lucidum Plant Assessment Form. California Invasive Plant Inventory Database. California Invasive Plant Council. Online. Available: http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/weedlist.php?#key (accessed 27 October 2008).

  • Panetta F.D. 2000. Fates of fruits and seeds of Ligustrum lucidum W.T.Ait. and L. sinense Lour. maintained under natural rainfall or irrigation. Australian Journal of Botany 48: 701-706.

  • Staples, G. W., C. T. Imada, and D. R. Herbst. 2003. New Hawaiian plant records for 2001. Bishop Mus.Occas. Pap. 74: 7-21.

  • Tecco P, S. Díaz, D. Gurvich, N. Perez-Harguindeguy, and M. Cabido. 2007. Facilitation and interference underlying the association between the woody invaders Pyracantha angustifolia and Ligustrum lucidum. Applied Vegetation Science 10(2): 211-218.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2008 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Online. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2008).

  • Weakley, A. S. 2008. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, northern Florida, and surrounding areas. Working Draft of 7 April 2008. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2008).

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

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