Ligumia recta - (Lamarck, 1819)
Black Sandshell
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ligumia latissima (TSN 80197) ;Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819) (TSN 80196)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.119053
Element Code: IMBIV26020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Ligumia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ligumia recta
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 19Dec2011
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages with some declines throughout its range. Lately it has become increasingly more difficult to find with many occurrences represented by few individuals, often without evidence of recruitment. Declines appear to be localized and the species continues to maintain a wide distribution with many stable populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (19Dec2011)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (01Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S2), Georgia (SX), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S1), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S1), Michigan (S1?), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (S2), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SH), New York (S2S3), North Dakota (S4), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (S4), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S5), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S3), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (SU)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Special Concern (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages (Mirarchi et al., 2004; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Minnesota, it is statewide (Sietman, 2003): Red, Lake of the Woods, Lake Superior (Graf, 1997; Cvancara, 1970). In Illinois, it is sporadic in the N (Cummings and Mayer, 1997; Schanzle and Cummings, 1991); Upper Illinois basin (Sietman et al., 2001; Schanzle et al., 2004). Indiana: Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), Wabash (Fisher, 2006), St. Joseph (Pryor, 2005), Rock (Tiemann et al., 2005). It is in Arkansas in the Cache and White (Christian, 1995; Christian et al., 2005; Gordon, 1982; Gordon et al., 1994); uncommon in Arkansas, St. Francis and Ouachita (Posey et al., 1996) (Anderson, 2006). It was in most of Ohio (Watters, 1995; Hoggarth et al., 2007); now only main and W Branch St. Joseph, Big Darby, Muskingum, and Walhonding Rivers (Watters et al., 2009). In Montana, it is introduced to Milk, Missouri (incl. above Fort Peck Reservoir), and Musselshell Rivers via SD (Gangloff and Gustafson, 2000; Stagliano, 2010); also Big Sioux (Skadsen and Perkins, 2000) and James Rivers, South Dakota (Perkins and Backlund, 2003). In Louisiana, it is rare in the Boeuf and Pearl (S Mississippi) (Vidrine, 1993). In Tennessee, it is throughout the Tennessee (Powell, Clinch, Holston, Nolichucky, French Broad, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee, Duck, mainstem Tennessee E and middle) to Cumberland (Big S Fork Cumberland, Obey, Caney Fork, Stones, Harpeth through main Cumberland) (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). In Alabama, it is uncommon in the Tennessee (dams), rare in Mobile (only Sipsey River) (Mirarchi, 2004; Williams et al., 2008); Black Warrior, Tuscaloosa and Greene/Hale Cos., and upper Tombigbee, Sumter/Greene Cos. (Williams et al., 1992); extirpated from the Coosa (Gangloff, 2003). It is statewide (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003) in Kentucky incl. Red (Clark, 1988), Middle Green and Barren Rivers (Cochran and Layzer, 1993). In Mississippi, it is in the Yazoo (archaeological), Tennessee, Pearl, Tombigbee (Jones et al., 2005), and Bear Creek drainage (McGregor and Garner, 2004); historical in Strong River (Darden et al., 2002). In the Coosa basin, Georgia, it is historical (Coosa, Oostanaula, Conasauga) (Williams and Hughes, 1998). In Vermont, NE limit is Lake Champlain tribs. (Poultney and Otter; Missisquoi and Hospital- not recently), but not Lake Champlain (Fichtel and Smith, 1995). In New York it is in the Allegheny (mainstem, Cassadaga Creek), Erie-Ontario (Lakes Erie to Oneida), and St. Lawrence-Champlain (St. Lawrence, Grass, Poultney, Lake Champlain) basins (Strayer and Jirka, 1997); recently Tonawanda (Niagara drainage) (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000). In Wisconsin, it is widespread and abundant esp. N (Mathiak, 1979). In West Virginia, it is in the Upper Ohio/Kanawha (Zeto et al., 1987), Cheat, Little Kanawha (Morris and Taylor, 1992), and Elk Rivers (Taylor and Horn, 1983). In Kansas, it was historical in the Neosho, Verdigris, Arkansas, Spring basins into MO and OK (Branson, 1966) (Couch, 1997), and Elk and Fall Rivers (Combes and Edds, 2005); rediscovered in Marais des Cygnes (Angelo and Cringan, 2003). In Oklahoma, it is in the Verdigris, Neosho (older), and Poteau Rivers (older) (Branson, 1984). In the Little Blue basin it is historical in KS and NE (Hoke, 2004). In the Big Blue, SE Nebraska - NE Kansas, it was widespread but extirpated (Hoke, 2005). It is in the Michigan upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939) in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and St. Clair basins (Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Canada, Clarke (1981) listed Hudson Bay (Red and Winnipeg, Lake Winnipeg); Great Lakes-St. Lawrence (all but Superior), E to the Ottawa River, Lake Champlain, and St. Lawrence to Montreal. It is throughout S Manitoba (Assiniboine- Watson, 2000), lower Great Lakes/ St. Lawrence of Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003), and Quebec far N (incl. Ausable = Huron, Sydenham = St. Clair, Moira = Ontario); may reach Prince Edward Island (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004). Recently Carrot River, Saskatchewan (Phillips et al., 2009).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Smith and Crabtree (2010) found this species at 7 of 32 sites (0 with recruitment) along the entire length of Pennsylvania's French Creek.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Although widespread in many areas such as Arkansas (Anderson, 2006), it is often rare to uncommon and many occurrences have limited viability.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Specific threats are unclear, although typical threats to freshwater systems in the region include habitat conversion and degradation as a result of water abstraction, polltion from a variety of sources and urbanization. Recently, zebra mussels were found in areas previously occupied by this species on the Rideau River in eastern Ontario (Schueler and Karstad, 2007).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Recently in the Ohio and Mississippi drainage, it has become increasingly rare, although still maintains a wide geographic range. Grabarciewicz (2008) collected only a single valve in Swan Creek (Lower Maumee) in Ohio. In Illinois, it is sporadic in the northern half of the state and is found in one-third of the drainages it once occupied (Cummings and Mayer, 1997). Recently, it has become scarce in Illinois and has been added to the state's threatened species list (Schanzle et al., 2004). It is extirpated from the Buffalo National River in Arkansas (Harris, 1996). Arkansas occurrences, though widespread, are represented by few individuals with limited viability (Anderson, 2006). Although known historically from the Coosa River basin in Georgia it has not been found alive recently (Williams and Hughes, 1998). It also appears extirpated from the Tallapoosa, Alabama and Coosa drainages in Alabama (Gangloff, 2003; Williams et al., 2008). The Pearl River population in Louisiana may be nearly extirpated (Brown and Banks, 2001). Pip (2006) was unable to find this species in surveys of 90 sites in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, despite previous documentation of the species there. Only relict shells remain in Copper Creek (Upper Clinch), Virginia (Hanlon et al., 2009).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Long-term Trend Comments: It occurred historically in the Clinton River drainage in Michigan (Strayer, 1980). It was known from the Black River, Ohio, over 100 years ago (Lyons et al., 2007). It is extirpated from the Wakarusa basin from Kansas (Tiemann, 2006).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages (Mirarchi et al., 2004; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GAextirpated, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MTexotic, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Colbert (01033), Jackson (01071), Jefferson (01073)*, Lauderdale (01077), Lawrence (01079)*, Limestone (01083)*, Madison (01089), Marshall (01095), Morgan (01103)*, Shelby (01117)*
IA Allamakee (19005), Buchanan (19019), Chickasaw (19037), Clay (19041), Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Des Moines (19057), Dubuque (19061), Hamilton (19079), Hardin (19083), Humboldt (19091), Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Mitchell (19131), Muscatine (19139), Scott (19163), Webster (19187)
IL Adams (17001), Boone (17007), Calhoun (17013), Carroll (17015), Clay (17025), Cook (17031)*, DeKalb (17037), Gallatin (17059), Grundy (17063), Hancock (17067), Hardin (17069), Henderson (17071), Henry (17073)*, Iroquois (17075), Jersey (17083), Jo Daviess (17085), Kane (17089), Kankakee (17091), Lee (17103), Madison (17119), Massac (17127), Mchenry (17111), Mercer (17131), Ogle (17141), Pike (17149), Pope (17151), Pulaski (17153), Rock Island (17161), Shelby (17173), Stephenson (17177), Vermilion (17183), Warren (17187), Whiteside (17195), Will (17197), Winnebago (17201)
IN Allen (18003), Carroll (18015), Cass (18017), Crawford (18025), De Kalb (18033), Floyd (18043), Fountain (18045), Fulton (18049), Hamilton (18057), Harrison (18061), Huntington (18069), Jefferson (18077), Kosciusko (18085), Lawrence (18093), Marshall (18099), Martin (18101), Miami (18103), Morgan (18109), Owen (18119), Posey (18129)*, Pulaski (18131), Spencer (18147), Switzerland (18155), Tippecanoe (18157), Vanderburgh (18163), Vigo (18167), Wabash (18169), Warren (18171), Warrick (18173), Washington (18175)
KS Linn (20107)
KY Edmonson (21061)
LA Morehouse (22067), Ouachita (22073), Richland (22083), Washington (22117)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Arenac (26011)*, Barry (26015)*, Bay (26017)*, Benzie (26019), Berrien (26021)*, Clare (26035)*, Clinton (26037), Dickinson (26043), Houghton (26061), Huron (26063)*, Ionia (26067), Iosco (26069)*, Isabella (26073), Jackson (26075), Kent (26081), Lenawee (26091)*, Livingston (26093), Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097)*, Macomb (26099), Mecosta (26107)*, Menominee (26109), Midland (26111), Monroe (26115), Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Oakland (26125), Osceola (26133)*, Ottawa (26139)*, Roscommon (26143)*, Saginaw (26145), St. Clair (26147), Tuscola (26157)*, Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Benton (27009), Big Stone (27011), Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Carlton (27017), Carver (27019), Cass (27021), Chippewa (27023), Chisago (27025), Clay (27027), Clearwater (27029), Crow Wing (27035), Dakota (27037), Douglas (27041), Faribault (27043), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055), Hubbard (27057), Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Jackson (27063), Kanabec (27065), Kittson (27069), Koochiching (27071), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lake of the Woods (27077), Marshall (27089), Meeker (27093), Mille Lacs (27095), Morrison (27097), Mower (27099), Nicollet (27103), Norman (27107), Otter Tail (27111), Pennington (27113), Pine (27115), Polk (27119), Pope (27121), Ramsey (27123), Red Lake (27125), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rice (27131), Roseau (27135), Scott (27139), Sherburne (27141), Sibley (27143), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145), Steele (27147), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151), Todd (27153), Traverse (27155), Wabasha (27157), Wadena (27159), Washington (27163), Wilkin (27167), Winona (27169), Wright (27171), Yellow Medicine (27173)
MO Andrew (29003), Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Carter (29035), Cedar (29039), Christian (29043), Clark (29045), Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Crawford (29055)*, Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Hickory (29085), Jasper (29097), Jefferson (29099), Laclede (29105), Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Madison (29123), Maries (29125), Marion (29127), Miller (29131), Mississippi (29133), Monroe (29137), Morgan (29141), Newton (29145), Osage (29151), Pettis (29159), Phelps (29161), Pike (29163), Pulaski (29169), Ralls (29173), Ripley (29181), St. Charles (29183), St. Clair (29185), St. Louis (29189), Texas (29215), Wayne (29223)
MS Clay (28025)*, Itawamba (28057), Lowndes (28087)*, Monroe (28095), Simpson (28127), Tishomingo (28141)
ND Barnes (38003)*, Cass (38017)*, Grand Forks (38035)*, Pembina (38067)*, Ransom (38073)*, Richland (38077)*, Traill (38097)*, Walsh (38099)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Jefferson (36045), Niagara (36063), Orleans (36073), St. Lawrence (36089), Washington (36115)
OH Adams (39001), Ashtabula (39007), Clermont (39025), Coshocton (39031), Defiance (39039), Erie (39043)*, Franklin (39049), Gallia (39053), Hancock (39063), Knox (39083), Lake (39085), Lawrence (39087), Lorain (39093)*, Lucas (39095)*, Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Ottawa (39123)*, Pickaway (39129), Scioto (39145), Trumbull (39155), Washington (39167), Williams (39171)
OK Cherokee (40021), Craig (40035), Le Flore (40079), Nowata (40105), Ottawa (40115), Rogers (40131)
SD Davison (46035), Hanson (46061), Hutchinson (46067), Lincoln (46083), Yankton (46135)
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167)*, Scott (51169), Washington (51191)*, Wise (51195)*
VT Addison (50001), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021)
WV Braxton (54007), Cabell (54011), Jackson (54035), Kanawha (54039), Mason (54053), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Cahaba (03150202)+*, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+*, Locust (03160111)+*, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Sturgeon (04020104)+, Tahquamenon (04020202)+, Menominee (04030108)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Manistique (04060106)+*, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+*, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102)+*, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+, Pine (04080202)+, Saginaw (04080206)+*, St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+*, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Upper Maumee (04100005)+, Tiffin (04100006)+*, Blanchard (04100008)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+*, Sandusky (04100011)+*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+*, Niagara (04120104)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Grass (04150304)+, Raquette (04150305)+, St. Regis (04150306)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Elk (05050007)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+*, Little Wabash (05120114)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Redeye (07010107)+, Long Prairie (07010108)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Le Sueur (07020011)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, Boone (07100005)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Salt (07110007)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Bourbeuse (07140103)+, Big (07140104)+, Whitewater (07140107)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205)+, Boeuf (08050001)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+, Otter Tail (09020103)+, Upper Red (09020104)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Elm-Marsh (09020107)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+*, Maple (09020205)+*, Sandhill-Wilson (09020301)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Grand Marais-Red (09020306)+*, Snake (09020309)+, Lower Red (09020311)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Lower James (10160011)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, One Hundred and Two (10240013)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Sac (10290106)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+, Lower Osage (10290111)+, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+, Big Piney (10290202)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lamine (10300103)+
11 James (11010002)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Middle Verdigris (11070103)+, Lower Verdigris (11070105)+, Bird (11070107)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Poteau (11110105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Young (1911) cited Fundulus diaphanus (banded killifish), Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish), Lepomis humilis (orangespotted sunfish), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie) as glochidial hosts. Lefevre and Curtis (1912) also identified Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) as a host. Surber (1913) identified Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) again as a host. Wilson (1916) identified Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie) as hosts. Coker et al. (1921) listed Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass), Anguilla rostrata (American eel), Cyprinus carpio (common carp), Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Perca flavescens (yellow perch), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie), Rutilus rutilus (roach) as glochidial hosts. Pearse (1924) identified Stizostedion canadense (sauger) as a host. In laboratory studies Steg and Neves (1997) identified the Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish), Lepomis auritus (redbreast sunfish), Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass), Morone americana (white perch), Perca flavescens (yellow perch), Xiphophorus maculatus (platy) and Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (convict cichlids) as suitable host fish. Hove et al. (1998) listed Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Stizostedion vitreum (walleye). Watters et al. (1999) identified Campostoma anomalum (central stoneroller), Lepomis gibbosus (pumkinseed), Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Lepomis megalotis (longear sunfish), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Notropis rubellus (rosyface shiner) as hosts. Hosts found to be largemouth bass, bluegill, sauger, white crappie, black crappie (Khyn and Layzer, 2000), with 10x more juveniles metamorphising on sauger than any other fish tested. Through laboratory testing, Barnhart and Baird (2000) determined glochidial hosts for this species to be black walleye and largemouth bass. Watters et al. (2009) confirmed host transformation on largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (38%). Gravid females were found to display marginal papillae to attract fish hosts for their parasitic larvae. The papillae of Ligumia nasuta and Ligumia subrostrata move rapidly and synchronously attracting fish which attack displaying females causing them to release glochidia onto the fish, but papillae of Ligumia recta were not observed to move. This species, unlike other species of Ligumia, displays both in daylight and in darkness (Corey et al., 2006).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: It is typically found in mediium-sized to large rivers in locations with strong current and substrates of coarse sand and gravel with cobbles in water depths from several inches to six feet or more (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). It can be found in sand, gravel, or silt (Fichtel and Smith, 1995).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Jun2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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