Ligumia recta - (Lamarck, 1819)
Black Sandshell
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ligumia latissima (TSN 80197) ;Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819) (TSN 80196)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.119053
Element Code: IMBIV26020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Ligumia
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ligumia recta
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 19Dec2011
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages with some declines throughout its range. Lately it has become increasingly more difficult to find with many occurrences represented by few individuals, often without evidence of recruitment. Declines appear to be localized and the species continues to maintain a wide distribution with many stable populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (19Dec2011)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (01Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S2), Georgia (SX), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S1), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S1), Michigan (S1?), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (S2), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SH), New York (S2S3), North Dakota (S4), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (S4), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S5), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S3), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (SU)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Special Concern (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages (Mirarchi et al., 2004; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Minnesota, it is statewide (Sietman, 2003): Red, Lake of the Woods, Lake Superior (Graf, 1997; Cvancara, 1970). In Illinois, it is sporadic in the N (Cummings and Mayer, 1997; Schanzle and Cummings, 1991); Upper Illinois basin (Sietman et al., 2001; Schanzle et al., 2004). Indiana: Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), Wabash (Fisher, 2006), St. Joseph (Pryor, 2005), Rock (Tiemann et al., 2005). It is in Arkansas in the Cache and White (Christian, 1995; Christian et al., 2005; Gordon, 1982; Gordon et al., 1994); uncommon in Arkansas, St. Francis and Ouachita (Posey et al., 1996) (Anderson, 2006). It was in most of Ohio (Watters, 1995; Hoggarth et al., 2007); now only main and W Branch St. Joseph, Big Darby, Muskingum, and Walhonding Rivers (Watters et al., 2009). In Montana, it is introduced to Milk, Missouri (incl. above Fort Peck Reservoir), and Musselshell Rivers via SD (Gangloff and Gustafson, 2000; Stagliano, 2010); also Big Sioux (Skadsen and Perkins, 2000) and James Rivers, South Dakota (Perkins and Backlund, 2003). In Louisiana, it is rare in the Boeuf and Pearl (S Mississippi) (Vidrine, 1993). In Tennessee, it is throughout the Tennessee (Powell, Clinch, Holston, Nolichucky, French Broad, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee, Duck, mainstem Tennessee E and middle) to Cumberland (Big S Fork Cumberland, Obey, Caney Fork, Stones, Harpeth through main Cumberland) (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). In Alabama, it is uncommon in the Tennessee (dams), rare in Mobile (only Sipsey River) (Mirarchi, 2004; Williams et al., 2008); Black Warrior, Tuscaloosa and Greene/Hale Cos., and upper Tombigbee, Sumter/Greene Cos. (Williams et al., 1992); extirpated from the Coosa (Gangloff, 2003). It is statewide (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003) in Kentucky incl. Red (Clark, 1988), Middle Green and Barren Rivers (Cochran and Layzer, 1993). In Mississippi, it is in the Yazoo (archaeological), Tennessee, Pearl, Tombigbee (Jones et al., 2005), and Bear Creek drainage (McGregor and Garner, 2004); historical in Strong River (Darden et al., 2002). In the Coosa basin, Georgia, it is historical (Coosa, Oostanaula, Conasauga) (Williams and Hughes, 1998). In Vermont, NE limit is Lake Champlain tribs. (Poultney and Otter; Missisquoi and Hospital- not recently), but not Lake Champlain (Fichtel and Smith, 1995). In New York it is in the Allegheny (mainstem, Cassadaga Creek), Erie-Ontario (Lakes Erie to Oneida), and St. Lawrence-Champlain (St. Lawrence, Grass, Poultney, Lake Champlain) basins (Strayer and Jirka, 1997); recently Tonawanda (Niagara drainage) (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000). In Wisconsin, it is widespread and abundant esp. N (Mathiak, 1979). In West Virginia, it is in the Upper Ohio/Kanawha (Zeto et al., 1987), Cheat, Little Kanawha (Morris and Taylor, 1992), and Elk Rivers (Taylor and Horn, 1983). In Kansas, it was historical in the Neosho, Verdigris, Arkansas, Spring basins into MO and OK (Branson, 1966) (Couch, 1997), and Elk and Fall Rivers (Combes and Edds, 2005); rediscovered in Marais des Cygnes (Angelo and Cringan, 2003). In Oklahoma, it is in the Verdigris, Neosho (older), and Poteau Rivers (older) (Branson, 1984). In the Little Blue basin it is historical in KS and NE (Hoke, 2004). In the Big Blue, SE Nebraska - NE Kansas, it was widespread but extirpated (Hoke, 2005). It is in the Michigan upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939) in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and St. Clair basins (Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Canada, Clarke (1981) listed Hudson Bay (Red and Winnipeg, Lake Winnipeg); Great Lakes-St. Lawrence (all but Superior), E to the Ottawa River, Lake Champlain, and St. Lawrence to Montreal. It is throughout S Manitoba (Assiniboine- Watson, 2000), lower Great Lakes/ St. Lawrence of Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003), and Quebec far N (incl. Ausable = Huron, Sydenham = St. Clair, Moira = Ontario); may reach Prince Edward Island (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004). Recently Carrot River, Saskatchewan (Phillips et al., 2009).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Smith and Crabtree (2010) found this species at 7 of 32 sites (0 with recruitment) along the entire length of Pennsylvania's French Creek.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Although widespread in many areas such as Arkansas (Anderson, 2006), it is often rare to uncommon and many occurrences have limited viability.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Specific threats are unclear, although typical threats to freshwater systems in the region include habitat conversion and degradation as a result of water abstraction, polltion from a variety of sources and urbanization. Recently, zebra mussels were found in areas previously occupied by this species on the Rideau River in eastern Ontario (Schueler and Karstad, 2007).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Recently in the Ohio and Mississippi drainage, it has become increasingly rare, although still maintains a wide geographic range. Grabarciewicz (2008) collected only a single valve in Swan Creek (Lower Maumee) in Ohio. In Illinois, it is sporadic in the northern half of the state and is found in one-third of the drainages it once occupied (Cummings and Mayer, 1997). Recently, it has become scarce in Illinois and has been added to the state's threatened species list (Schanzle et al., 2004). It is extirpated from the Buffalo National River in Arkansas (Harris, 1996). Arkansas occurrences, though widespread, are represented by few individuals with limited viability (Anderson, 2006). Although known historically from the Coosa River basin in Georgia it has not been found alive recently (Williams and Hughes, 1998). It also appears extirpated from the Tallapoosa, Alabama and Coosa drainages in Alabama (Gangloff, 2003; Williams et al., 2008). The Pearl River population in Louisiana may be nearly extirpated (Brown and Banks, 2001). Pip (2006) was unable to find this species in surveys of 90 sites in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, despite previous documentation of the species there. Only relict shells remain in Copper Creek (Upper Clinch), Virginia (Hanlon et al., 2009).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Long-term Trend Comments: It occurred historically in the Clinton River drainage in Michigan (Strayer, 1980). It was known from the Black River, Ohio, over 100 years ago (Lyons et al., 2007). It is extirpated from the Wakarusa basin from Kansas (Tiemann, 2006).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is widespread in eastern and central U.S. and Canada, occurring from the Great Lakes basin south into Mississippi River drainage to Louisiana and in some Gulf Coast drainages (Mirarchi et al., 2004; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GAextirpated, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MTexotic, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Colbert (01033), Jackson (01071), Jefferson (01073)*, Lauderdale (01077), Lawrence (01079)*, Limestone (01083)*, Madison (01089), Marshall (01095), Morgan (01103)*, Shelby (01117)*
IA Allamakee (19005), Buchanan (19019), Chickasaw (19037), Clay (19041), Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Des Moines (19057), Dubuque (19061), Hamilton (19079), Hardin (19083), Humboldt (19091), Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Mitchell (19131), Muscatine (19139), Scott (19163), Webster (19187)
IL Adams (17001), Boone (17007), Calhoun (17013), Carroll (17015), Clay (17025), Cook (17031)*, DeKalb (17037), Gallatin (17059), Grundy (17063), Hancock (17067), Hardin (17069), Henderson (17071), Henry (17073)*, Iroquois (17075), Jersey (17083), Jo Daviess (17085), Kane (17089), Kankakee (17091), Lee (17103), Madison (17119), Massac (17127), Mchenry (17111), Mercer (17131), Ogle (17141), Pike (17149), Pope (17151), Pulaski (17153), Rock Island (17161), Shelby (17173), Stephenson (17177), Vermilion (17183), Warren (17187), Whiteside (17195), Will (17197), Winnebago (17201)
IN Allen (18003), Carroll (18015), Cass (18017), Crawford (18025), De Kalb (18033), Floyd (18043), Fountain (18045), Fulton (18049), Hamilton (18057), Harrison (18061), Huntington (18069), Jefferson (18077), Kosciusko (18085), Lawrence (18093), Marshall (18099), Martin (18101), Miami (18103), Morgan (18109), Owen (18119), Posey (18129)*, Pulaski (18131), Spencer (18147), Switzerland (18155), Tippecanoe (18157), Vanderburgh (18163), Vigo (18167), Wabash (18169), Warren (18171), Warrick (18173), Washington (18175)
KS Linn (20107)
KY Edmonson (21061)
LA Morehouse (22067), Ouachita (22073), Richland (22083), Washington (22117)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Arenac (26011)*, Barry (26015)*, Bay (26017)*, Benzie (26019), Berrien (26021)*, Clare (26035)*, Clinton (26037), Dickinson (26043), Houghton (26061), Huron (26063)*, Ionia (26067), Iosco (26069)*, Isabella (26073), Jackson (26075), Kent (26081), Lenawee (26091)*, Livingston (26093), Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097)*, Macomb (26099), Mecosta (26107)*, Menominee (26109), Midland (26111), Monroe (26115), Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Oakland (26125), Osceola (26133)*, Ottawa (26139)*, Roscommon (26143)*, Saginaw (26145), St. Clair (26147), Tuscola (26157)*, Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Benton (27009), Big Stone (27011), Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Carlton (27017), Carver (27019), Cass (27021), Chippewa (27023), Chisago (27025), Clay (27027), Clearwater (27029), Crow Wing (27035), Dakota (27037), Douglas (27041), Faribault (27043), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055), Hubbard (27057), Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Jackson (27063), Kanabec (27065), Kittson (27069), Koochiching (27071), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lake of the Woods (27077), Marshall (27089), Meeker (27093), Mille Lacs (27095), Morrison (27097), Mower (27099), Nicollet (27103), Norman (27107), Otter Tail (27111), Pennington (27113), Pine (27115), Polk (27119), Pope (27121), Ramsey (27123), Red Lake (27125), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rice (27131), Roseau (27135), Scott (27139), Sherburne (27141), Sibley (27143), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145), Steele (27147), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151), Todd (27153), Traverse (27155), Wabasha (27157), Wadena (27159), Washington (27163), Wilkin (27167), Winona (27169), Wright (27171), Yellow Medicine (27173)
MO Andrew (29003), Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Carter (29035), Cedar (29039), Christian (29043), Clark (29045), Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Crawford (29055)*, Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Hickory (29085), Jasper (29097), Jefferson (29099), Laclede (29105), Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Madison (29123), Maries (29125), Marion (29127), Miller (29131), Mississippi (29133), Monroe (29137), Morgan (29141), Newton (29145), Osage (29151), Pettis (29159), Phelps (29161), Pike (29163), Pulaski (29169), Ralls (29173), Ripley (29181), St. Charles (29183), St. Clair (29185), St. Louis (29189), Texas (29215), Wayne (29223)
MS Clay (28025)*, Itawamba (28057), Lowndes (28087)*, Monroe (28095), Simpson (28127), Tishomingo (28141)
ND Barnes (38003)*, Cass (38017)*, Grand Forks (38035)*, Pembina (38067)*, Ransom (38073)*, Richland (38077)*, Traill (38097)*, Walsh (38099)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Jefferson (36045), Niagara (36063), Orleans (36073), St. Lawrence (36089), Washington (36115)
OH Adams (39001), Ashtabula (39007), Clermont (39025), Coshocton (39031), Defiance (39039), Erie (39043)*, Franklin (39049), Gallia (39053), Hancock (39063), Knox (39083), Lake (39085), Lawrence (39087), Lorain (39093)*, Lucas (39095)*, Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Ottawa (39123)*, Pickaway (39129), Scioto (39145), Trumbull (39155), Washington (39167), Williams (39171)
OK Cherokee (40021), Craig (40035), Le Flore (40079), Nowata (40105), Ottawa (40115), Rogers (40131)
SD Davison (46035), Hanson (46061), Hutchinson (46067), Lincoln (46083), Yankton (46135)
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167)*, Scott (51169), Washington (51191)*, Wise (51195)*
VT Addison (50001), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021)
WV Braxton (54007), Cabell (54011), Jackson (54035), Kanawha (54039), Mason (54053), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Cahaba (03150202)+*, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+*, Locust (03160111)+*, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Sturgeon (04020104)+, Tahquamenon (04020202)+, Menominee (04030108)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Manistique (04060106)+*, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+*, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102)+*, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+, Pine (04080202)+, Saginaw (04080206)+*, St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+*, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Upper Maumee (04100005)+, Tiffin (04100006)+*, Blanchard (04100008)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+*, Sandusky (04100011)+*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+*, Niagara (04120104)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Grass (04150304)+, Raquette (04150305)+, St. Regis (04150306)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Elk (05050007)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+*, Little Wabash (05120114)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Redeye (07010107)+, Long Prairie (07010108)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Le Sueur (07020011)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, Boone (07100005)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Salt (07110007)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Bourbeuse (07140103)+, Big (07140104)+, Whitewater (07140107)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205)+, Boeuf (08050001)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+, Otter Tail (09020103)+, Upper Red (09020104)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Elm-Marsh (09020107)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+*, Maple (09020205)+*, Sandhill-Wilson (09020301)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Grand Marais-Red (09020306)+*, Snake (09020309)+, Lower Red (09020311)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Lower James (10160011)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, One Hundred and Two (10240013)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Sac (10290106)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+, Lower Osage (10290111)+, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+, Big Piney (10290202)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lamine (10300103)+
11 James (11010002)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Middle Verdigris (11070103)+, Lower Verdigris (11070105)+, Bird (11070107)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Poteau (11110105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Young (1911) cited Fundulus diaphanus (banded killifish), Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish), Lepomis humilis (orangespotted sunfish), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie) as glochidial hosts. Lefevre and Curtis (1912) also identified Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) as a host. Surber (1913) identified Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) again as a host. Wilson (1916) identified Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie) as hosts. Coker et al. (1921) listed Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass), Anguilla rostrata (American eel), Cyprinus carpio (common carp), Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Perca flavescens (yellow perch), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie), Rutilus rutilus (roach) as glochidial hosts. Pearse (1924) identified Stizostedion canadense (sauger) as a host. In laboratory studies Steg and Neves (1997) identified the Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish), Lepomis auritus (redbreast sunfish), Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass), Morone americana (white perch), Perca flavescens (yellow perch), Xiphophorus maculatus (platy) and Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (convict cichlids) as suitable host fish. Hove et al. (1998) listed Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Stizostedion vitreum (walleye). Watters et al. (1999) identified Campostoma anomalum (central stoneroller), Lepomis gibbosus (pumkinseed), Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), Lepomis megalotis (longear sunfish), Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass), Notropis rubellus (rosyface shiner) as hosts. Hosts found to be largemouth bass, bluegill, sauger, white crappie, black crappie (Khyn and Layzer, 2000), with 10x more juveniles metamorphising on sauger than any other fish tested. Through laboratory testing, Barnhart and Baird (2000) determined glochidial hosts for this species to be black walleye and largemouth bass. Watters et al. (2009) confirmed host transformation on largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (38%). Gravid females were found to display marginal papillae to attract fish hosts for their parasitic larvae. The papillae of Ligumia nasuta and Ligumia subrostrata move rapidly and synchronously attracting fish which attack displaying females causing them to release glochidia onto the fish, but papillae of Ligumia recta were not observed to move. This species, unlike other species of Ligumia, displays both in daylight and in darkness (Corey et al., 2006).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: It is typically found in mediium-sized to large rivers in locations with strong current and substrates of coarse sand and gravel with cobbles in water depths from several inches to six feet or more (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). It can be found in sand, gravel, or silt (Fichtel and Smith, 1995).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro ( for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Jun2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Angelo, R.T. and M.S. Cringan. 2003. Rediscovery of the black sandshell, Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 106(1/2): 111-113.

  • Barnhart, M.C. and M.S. Baird. 2000. Fish hosts and culture of mussel species of special concern. Annual Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, Missouri, and Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. 39 pp.

  • Branson, B.A. 1966a. A partial biological survey of the Spring River drainage in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri. Part I, collecting sites, basic limnological data, and mollusks. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3/4): 242-293.

  • Branson, B.A. 1984. The mussels (Unionacea: Bivalvia) of Oklahoma- Part 3: Lampsilini. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 64: 20-36.

  • Bright, R. C., C. Gatenby, D. Olson, and E. Plummer. 1990. A survey of the mussels of the Minnesota River, 1989. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 106 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., C. Gatenby, R. Heisler, E. Plummer, K. Stramer, and W. Ostlie. 1995. A survey of the mussels of the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa rivers, Minnesota, 1990. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 131 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., T. Atkinson, and C. Gatenby. 1994. Survey of the mussels of the Otter Tail and Pelican rivers, Minnesota: the data. Report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 191 pp.

  • Burch, J. B. 1975. Freshwater Unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Environmental Protection Agency, Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 11. 176 pp.

  • Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (mollusca: pelecypoda) of North America. Malcological Publications. Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.


  • Christian, A.D. 1995. Analysis of the commercial mussel beds in the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. M.S. Thesis, Arkansas State University. 210 pp.

  • Christian, A.D., J.L. Harris, W.R. Posey, J.F. Hockmuth, and G.L. Harp. 2005. Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) assemblages of the lower Cache River, Arkansas. Southeastern Naturalist, 4(3): 487-512.

  • Clark, C.F. 1988. Some fresh-water mussels from the Red River drainage, Kentucky. Malacology Data Net, 2(3/4): 100-104.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367.

  • Cochran, T.G. II and J.B. Layzer. 1993. Effects of commercial harvest on unionid habitat use in the Green and Barren Rivers, Kentucky. Pages 61-65 in K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, and L.M. Koch (eds.) Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels: Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October, 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 189 pp.

  • Coker, R.E., A.F. Shira, H.W. Clark, and A.D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries 37:78-181.

  • Combes, M. and D. Edds. 2005. Mussel assemblages upstream from three Kansas reservoirs. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 20(1): 139-148.

  • Corey, C.A., R. Dowling, and D.L. Strayer. 2006. Display behavior of Ligumia (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Northeastern Naturalist, 13(3): 319-332.

  • Corey, C.A., R. Dowling, and D.L. Strayer. 2006. Display behavior of Ligumia (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Northeastern Naturalist 13:319-332.

  • Cummings, K.S. and J.M. Berlocher. 1990. The naiades or freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Tippecanoe River, Indiana. Malacological Review 23:83-98.

  • Cummings, Kevin S. et al. 1992. Survey of the Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Unionidae) of the Wabash River Drainage. Final Report. INHS Center for Biodiversity Tech. Rep. 1992 (1):210 pp.

  • Cvancara, A.M. 1970. Mussels (Unionidae) of the Red River Valley in North Dakota and Minnesota, U.S.A.. Malacologia, 10(1): 57-92.

  • Darden, R.I., T.L. Darden, and B.R. Kreiser. 2002. Mussel fauna of the Strong River, Mississippi. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 17(4): 651-653.

  • Davis, M. 1987. Freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Cannon River drainage in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 21 pp. + figures and original data sheets.

  • Davis, Mike. 1987. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Cannon River Drainage in Southeastern Minnesota. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in unpublished report.

  • Dawley, C. 1947. Distribution of aquatic mollusks in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 38:671-697.

  • Doolittle, T. C. J. 1988. Distribution and relative abundance of freshwater mussels in the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resouces. Unpaged.

  • Ecological Specialists, Inc. 1996. Unionid Mussel Survey of the Blue River, Indiana. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. 23 pp.


  • Fichtel, C. and D.G. Smith. 1995. The freshwater mussels of Vermont. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department. Technical Report 18. 54 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba Mollusk species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Gordon, M.E., S.W. Chordas, G.L. Harp. and A.V. Brown. 1994. Aquatic Mollusca of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, U.S.A. Walkerana, 7(17/18): 1-9

  • Harris, J.L. 1996. The freshwater mussel resources of the Buffalo National River, Arkansas: Phase 1: qualitative survey: location, species composition, and status of mussel beds. Report to U.S. department of the Interior, Buffalo National River, Harrison, Arkansas. 19 pp. + app.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Animals. 101st ESPB Meeting, August 21, 1998. 16pp.

  • Hoke, E. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Little Blue River drainage of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 29: 7-24.

  • Hoke, E. 2005b. The unionid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Big Blue River basin of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 30: 33-57.

  • Hove, M.C., Kurth, J.E., Heath, D.J., Benjamin, R.L., Endris, M.B., Kenyon, R.L., Kapuscinski, A.R., Hillegass, K.R., Anderson, T.W., Pepi, V.E., and C.J. Lee. 1998a. Hosts and host atracting behaviors of five upper Mississippi River mussels. Abstracts, World Congress of Malacology, Washington, DC. p. 159.

  • Howard, A.D. 1915. Some exceptional cases of breeding among the Unionidae. The Nautilus 29:4-11.

  • Khym, J.R. and J.B. Layzer. 2000. Host fish suitability for glochidia of Ligumia recta. American Midland Naturalist 143: 178-184.

  • La Rocque, A. 1967. Pleistocene Mollusca of Ohio. Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey Bulletin 62, Part 2. 113-365 + 8 plates.

  • Lefevre, G. and W.T. Curtis. 1912. Studies on the reproduction and artificial propogation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 30:102-201.

  • Letson, E. J. 1905. Checklist of the Mollusca of New York. Bulletin. No. 88. New York State Museum, Albany, NY.

  • Lyons, M.S., R.A. Krebs, J.P. Holt, L.J. Rundo, and W. Zawiski. 2007. Assessing causes of change in the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Black River, Ohio. American Midland Naturalist, 158: 1-15.

  • Marangelo, P.J. and D.L. Strayer. 2000. The freshwater mussels of the Tonawanda Creek basin in western New York. Walkerana, 11(25): 97-106.

  • McGregor, S.W. and J.T. Garner. 2004. Changes in the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna of the Bear Creek system of northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi. American Malacological Bulletin, 18(1/2): 61-70.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., J.T. Garner, M.F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil. 2004b. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. xii + 255 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., et al. 2004a. Alabama Wildlife. Volume One: A Checklist of Vertebrates and Selected Invertebrates: Aquatic Mollusks, Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pp.

  • Mohler, J.W., P. Morrison, and J. Haas. 2006. The mussels of Muddy Creek on Erie National Wildlife Refuge. Northeastern Naturalist 13(4):569-582.

  • Moyle, P. and J. Bacon. 1969. Distribution and abundance of molluscs in a fresh water environment. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 35(2/3):82-85.


  • Ortmann, A. E. 1919. A monograph of the naiades of Pennsylvania. Part III: Systematic account of the genera and species. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 8:1-384.



  • Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennesee. 328 pp.

  • Pearse, A. S. 1924. The parasites of lake fishes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 21:161-194.

  • Perkins III, K. and D.C. Backlund. 2003. A survey for winged mapleleaf (Quadrula fragosa) and scaleshell (Leptodea leptodon) in the James River, South Dakota. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota, Report GFP 2003-17. 21 pp.

  • Pip, E. 2000. The decline of freshwater molluscs in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(4):555-560.

  • Pip, E. 2006. Littoral mollusc communities and water quality in southern Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 3637-3652.

  • Posey, W.R., III, J.L. Harris, and G.L. Harp. 1996b. An evaluation of the mussel community in the Lower Ouachita River. Report to the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Arkansas. 28 pp.

  • Pryor, W.W. 2005. Distribution of the native freshwater mussels in the rivers of Allen County, Indiana. Report to the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 71 pp.

  • Robertson, I. and C. Blakeslee. 1948. The mollusca of the Niagara Frontier region. Bulletin Buffalo Society Natural Science 19: 1-191.


  • Schanzle, R.W. and K.S. Cummings. 1991. A survey of the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Sangamon River basin, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes, 137: 1-25.

  • Schanzle, R.W., G.W. Kruse, J.A. Kath, R.A. Klocek, and K.S. Cummings. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Fox River basin, Illinois and Wisconsin. Illinois Natural History Biological Notes, 141: 1-35.

  • Schloesser, D.W., and T.F. Nalepa. 1994. Dramatic decline of Unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51:2234-2242.

  • Sietman, B. E. 2003. Field guide to the freshwater mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Skadsen, D.R. and K. Perkins III. 2000. Unionid mussels of the Big Sioux River and tributaries: Moody, Minnehaha, Lincoln, and Union Counties, South Dakota. GFP Report 2000-9 to the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota. 52 pp.

  • Smith, T.A. and D. Crabtree. 2010. Freshwater mussel (Unionidae: Bivalvia) distributions and densities in French Creek, Pennsylvania. Northeastern Naturalist 17(3):387-414.

  • Spoo, A. 2008. The Pearly Mussels of Pennsylvania. Coachwhip Publications: Landisville, Pennsylvania. 210 pp.

  • Stagliano, D. 2010. Freshwater mussels in Montana: Comprehensive results from 3 years of SWG funded surveys. Report prepared for the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, Montana. 75 pp.

  • Steg, M.B. and R.J. Neves. 1997. Fish host identification for Virginia listed unionids in the upper Tennessee River drainage. Triannual Unionid Report, 13: 34.

  • Strayer, D. 1983. The effects of surface geology and stream size on freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionidae) distribution in southeastern Michigan, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 13:253-264.

  • Strayer, D.L. 1999a. Use of flow refuges by unionid mussels in rivers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18(4):468-476.

  • Strayer, D.L. and J. Ralley. 1993. Microhabitat use by an assemblage of stream-dwelling unionaceans (Bivalvia) including two rare species of Alasmidonta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12(3):247-258.

  • Strayer, David L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels (Bivalva: Unionoidea) of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The New York State Education Department.

  • Strayer, David L., D.C. Hunter, L.C. Smith, and C.K. Borg. 1994. Distribution, abundance, and roles of freshwater clams (Bivalva, Unionidae) in the freshwater tidal Hudson River. Freshwater Biology 31:239-248.

  • Strayer, David L., J.A. Dowling, W.R. Haag, T.L. King, J.B. Layzer, T.J. Newton and S.J. Nichols. 2004. Changing perspectives on Pearly Mussels, North America's most Imperiled Animals. BioScience 54:429-439.

  • Strayer, David. 1991. Memo to the Endangered Species Unit of August 19, 1991 regarding the extent and size of the population of the dwarf wedge mussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in the Lower Neversink River.

  • Surber, T. 1913. Notes on the natural hosts of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, 32: 101-116.

  • Thiel, P. 1981. A survey of unionid mussels in the upper Mississippi River (pools 3-11). Technical Bulletin 124. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. 24 pp.

  • Turgeon, D.D., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, W.K. Emerson, W.G. Lyons, W.L. Pratt, C.F.E. Roper, A. Scheltema, E.G. Thompson, and J.D. Williams. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the US and Canada: mollusks. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 16:1-277.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Van der Schalie, H. 1938a. The naiad fauna of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 40:7-78.

  • Watson, E.T., L.C. Graham, and W.G. Franzin. 1998. The distribution of Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2232. Central and Arctic Region, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB. 32 p.

  • Watters, G. T. 1994. An annotated bibliography of the reproduction and propagation of the Unionoidea (Primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contributions No. 1, Columbus, Ohio. 158 pp.

  • Watters, G. Thomas. 1994. An Annotated Bibliography of the Reproduction and Propogation of the Unionoidea (Primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University. In cooperation with Ohio Division of Wildlife. 158 pp.

  • Watters, G.T. 1992a. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-490.

  • Watters, G.T. 1995a. A field guide to the freshwater mussels of Ohio. revised 3rd edition. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Columbus, Ohio. 122 pp.

  • Watters, G.T., S.H. O'Dee, S. Chordas, and D. Glover. 1999. Seven potential hosts for Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819). Triannual Unionid Report, 18: 5.

  • Watters, G.T., T. Gibson, and B. Kelly. 2009a. Host identifications or confirmations. Ellipsaria 11(1):19.

  • Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, R. S. Butler, K. S. Cummings, J. T. Garner, J. L. Harris, N. A. Johnson, and G. T. Watters. 2017. A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20:33-58.

  • Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, and J. T Garner. 2008. Freshwater mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi, & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pages.

  • Williams, J.D. and M.H. Hughes. 1998. Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) of selected reaches of the main channel of the rivers in the Coosa Drainage of Georgia. U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Caribbean Science Center.

  • Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, Jr., K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993b. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.

  • Williams, J.D., S.L.H. Fuller, and R. Gracea. 1992a. Effects of impoundment on freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the main channel of the Black Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers in western Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 13:1-10.

  • Wilson, C. B. 1916. Copepod parasites of fresh-water fishes and their economic relations to mussel glochidia. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 824], 34: 333-374 + 15 plates.

  • Young, D. 1911. The implantation of the glochidium on the fish. University of Missouri Bulletin, Science Series 2: 1-16, 3 pls.

  • Zeto, M.A., W.A. Tolin, and J.E. Schmidt. 1987. The freshwater mussels (Unionidae) of the upper Ohio River, Greenup and Belleville Pools, West Virginia. The Nautilus, 101: 182-185.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Ahlstedt, S.A. 1995-1996. Status survey for federally listed endangered freshwater mussel species in the Paint Rock River system, northeastern Alabama, U.S.A. Walkerana 8(19):63-80.

  • Anderson, J.E. (ed.) 2006. Arkansas Wildlife Action Plan. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, Arkansas. 2028 pp.

  • Athearn, H.D. 1963. Some new records of naiades from eastern North America. Sterkiana 9:39.

  • Backlund, D.C. 2000. Summary of current known distribution and status of freshwater mussels (Unionoida) in South Dakota. Central Plains Archaeology, 8(1): 69-77.

  • Badra, P.J. and R.R. Goforth. 2003. Freshwater mussel surveys of Great Lakes tributary rivers in Michigan. Report Number MNFI 2003-15 to the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Coastal Zone Management Unit, Lansing, Michigan. 40 pp.

  • Bogan, A.E. 1993a. Workshop on freshwater bivalves of Pennsylvania. Workshop hosted by Aquatic Systems Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, held at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 6-7 May 1993. 80 pp.

  • Brown, K.M. and P.D. Banks. 2001. The conservation of unionid mussels in Louisiana rivers: diversity, assemblage composition and substrate use. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11(3): 189-198.

  • Cicerello, R.R. and G.A. Schuster. 2003. A guide to the freshwater mussels of Kentucky. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 7:1-62.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The Freshwater Molluscs of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D.W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1992. Ontario's Sydenham River, an important refugium for native freshwater mussels against competition from the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Malacology Data Net, 3(1-4): 43-55.

  • Couch, K.J. 1997. An Illustrated Guide to the Unionid Mussels of Kansas. Karen J. Couch. [Printed in Olathe, Kansas]. 124 pp.

  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1997. Distributional checklist and status of Illinois freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionacea). Pages 129-145 in: K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, C.A. Mayer, and T.J. Naimo (eds.) Conservation and management of freshwater mussels II: initiatives for the future. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, October 1995, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois.

  • Cvancara, A.M. 1983. Aquatic mollusks of North Dakota. Report of Investigation No. 78, North Dakota Geological Survey. Kay's, Inc., Jamestown, North Dakota. 141 pp.

  • Fisher, B.E. 2006. Current status of freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida) in the Wabash River drainage of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 115(2): 103-109.

  • Gangloff, M.M. 2003. The status, physical habitat associations, and parasites of freshwater mussels in the upper Alabama River Drainage, Alabama. Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University.

  • Gangloff, M.M. and D.L. Gustafson. 2000. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) of Montana. Central Plains Archaeology, 8(1): 121-130.

  • Goodrich, C. and H. van der Schalie. 1939. Aquatic mollusks of the upper peninsula of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 43: 1-45.

  • Gordon, M.E. 1982. Mollusca of the White River, Arkansas and Missouri. The Southwestern Naturalist, 27(3): 347-352.

  • Grabarkiewicz, J.D. 2008. Three years of unionid surveys in Swan Creek, Lower Maumee River watershed, Lucas Co., OH. Final Report to the Ohio Division of Wildlife, Toledo Naturalists' Association, and Metroparks of the Toledo Area, Toledo, Ohio. 18 pp. + app.

  • Graf, D.L. 1997. Distribution of unionoid (Bivalvia) faunas in Minnesota, USA. The Nautilus, 110(2): 45-54.

  • Hanlon, S.D., M.A. Petty, and R.J. Neves. 2009. Status of native freshwater mussels in Copper Creek, Virginia. Southeastern Naturalist 8(1):1-18.

  • Hoggarth, M.A., D.A. Kimberly, and B.G. Van Allen. 2007. A study of the mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Symmes Creek and tributaries in Jackson, Gallia and Lawrence Counties, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 107(4):57-62.

  • Jones, R.L., W.T. Slack, and P.D. Hartfield. 2005. The freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Mississippi. Southeastern Naturalist, 4(1): 77-92.

  • Mathiak, H.A. 1979. A river survey of the unionid mussels of Wisconsin, 1973-1977. Sand Shell Press: Horicon, Wisconsin. 75 pp.

  • Metcalfe-Smith, J.L. and B. Cudmore-Vokey. 2004. National general status assessment of freshwater mussels (Unionacea). National Water Research Institute / NWRI Contribution No. 04-027. Environment Canada, March 2004. Paginated separately.

  • Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., J. Di Maio, S.K. Staton, and S.R. De Solla. 2003. Status of the freshwater mussel communities of the Sydenham River, Ontario, Canada. American Midland Naturalist 150:37-50.

  • Morris, J.S. and R.W. Taylor. 1992. A survey of the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Kanawha River of West Virginia. The Nautilus 92(4):153-155.

  • Morris, T.J. and J. Di Maio. 1999. Current distributions of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in rivers of southwestern Ontario. Malacological Review, 31/32(1): 9-17.

  • Mulcrone, R.S. and C. Mehne. 2001. Freshwater mussels of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, from Battle Creek to Saugatuck. Report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Lansing, Michigan. 15 pp.

  • Oesch, R.D. 1995. Missouri Naiades. A Guide to the Mussels of Missouri. Second edition. Missouri Department of Conservation: Jefferson City, Missouri. viii + 271 pp.

  • Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.

  • Phillips, I.D., D.A. Schulz, and K. Kirkham. 2009. Western range expansion for the black sandshell (Unionidae: Ligumia recta [Lamarck, 1819]). Western North American Naturalist 69(2):251-252.

  • Ricciardi, A., F.J. Whoriskey, and J.B. Rasmussen. 1996. Impact of Dreissena invasion on native unionid bivalves in the upper St. Lawrence River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 53: 1434-1444.

  • Schueler, F.W. and A. Karstad. 2007. Report on unionid conservation & exploration in eastern Ontario: 2007. The Popular Clammer: a Newsletter About Freshwater Unionid Mussels in Canada, 1: 1-2.

  • Sietman, B.E., S.D. Whitney, D.E. Kelner, K.D. Blodgett, and H.L. Dunn. 2001. Post-extirpation recovery of the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna in the Upper Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 16(2): 273-281.

  • Strayer, D. 1980. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Clinton River, Michigan, with comments on man's impact on the fauna, 1870-1978. The Nautilus 94(4):142-149.

  • Strayer, D.L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The University of the State of New York. 113 pp. + figures.

  • Taylor, R.W. and K.J. Horn. 1983. A list of freshwater mussels suggested for designation as rare, endangereed or threatened in West Virginia. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science (Biology Section) 54:31-34.

  • Tiemann, J.S., R.E. Szafoni, and K. Roman. 2005. Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) survey of Kyte River, Ogle County, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 98(3-4):159-169.

  • Tiemann, J.S.. 2006. Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) survey of the Wakurusa River basin, Kansas. Transaction of the Kansas Academy of Science, 109(3/4): 221-230.

  • University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ) Mollusks Department collections. Ann Arbor, MI.

  • Vidrine, M.F. 1993. The Historical Distributions of Freshwater Mussels in Louisiana. Gail Q. Vidrine Collectibles: Eunice, Louisiana. xii + 225 pp. + 20 plates.

  • Watson, E.T. 2000. Distribution and life history of the Unionidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba, with special reference to Anodontoides ferussacianus. MS Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 159 pp.

  • Watters, G.T., M.A. Hoggarth, and D.H. Stansbery. 2009b. The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio. Ohio State University Press: Columbus, Ohio. 421 pp.

  • Williams, J.D. and M.H. Hughes. 1998. Freshwater mussels of selected reaches of the main channel rivers in the Coosa drainage of Georgia. U.S. Geological report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Alabama. 21 pp.

  • Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.

  • Wolf, C. and B. Stark. 2008. Survey of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) in the Marais des Cygnes River, Fall River, and Grouse Creek. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 111(1/2):1-20.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.