Lethe anthedon - A. Clark, 1936
Northern Pearly-Eye
Synonym(s): Enodia anthedon A.H. Clark, 1936
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lethe anthedon (A. Clark, 1936) (TSN 778106)
French Common Names: satyre perlé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.113611
Element Code: IILEPM9020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Lethe
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Enodia anthedon
Taxonomic Comments: The use of Lethe over Enodia follows Pelham (2008), and was based on Chermock (1947), Lesse (1957) and Scott (1986).

Modern authors have generally not recognized subspecies but observations by Grkovich and Pavulaan (2003) in the contact areas suggest there may be some ecological and behaviors differences as well as the usual minor maculation features. However their report of "subspecies" borealis from high elevation North Carolina is premature and obviously needs verification, including actual specimens. The purported color difference is not obvious from the photograph (and might not be completely accurate in a photograph) and the pale band enclosing the eyespots is well within the range of variation of anthedon. The behavioral observations are subject to interpretation. There are no supporting specimens. Both "subspecies" are widespread and not rare.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Jul2011
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: While this is still a very widespread, and in some places still common, butterfly, considering the large-scale changes to forest habitats being caused by exotic plants and/or out of control deer in most of its range, a rank of G4 was in place for a few years. However, this species seems to be holding its own in deer-ravaged forests as long as some grasses remain. Adults do no need nectar flowers and may not need shrubs for cover. Perhaps more importantly, Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium) is now a foodplant, apparently the main one in parts of New Jersey where this butterfly seems more common than in the past.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Jul2008)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S3), Connecticut (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (SU), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S2S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S5), Maine (S4), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S4S5), Minnesota (S4S5), Missouri (S4), Nebraska (S3), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S4?), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Alberta (S2S3), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S5), Nova Scotia (S4), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S4S5), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Eastern and midwestern US and Canada.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Eastern and midwestern US and Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CT, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Greene (18055)
NE Nance (31125), Richardson (31147)
NJ Essex (34013)*, Morris (34027)*, Somerset (34035)*, Sussex (34037), Union (34039)*, Warren (34041)
PA Berks (42011), Carbon (42025), Columbia (42037), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Forest (42053), Juniata (42067), Lehigh (42077), Luzerne (42079), Lycoming (42081), McKean (42083), Mifflin (42087), Monroe (42089), Montour (42093), Perry (42099), Schuylkill (42107), Sullivan (42113), Tioga (42117), Wyoming (42131)
RI Washington (44009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Pine (02050205)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301)+, Lower Juniata (02050304)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Lower White (05120202)+
10 Loup (10210009)+, Cedar (10210010)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Nymphalidae.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Local in mesic to wet woods, often near streams in hilly regions. Ocassionally found in xeric wooded barrens. Occasionally seen in open shrub swamps but apparently only strays from nearby woods.
Adult Food Habits: Coprophagous, Scavenger
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Various grasses including white grass (Leersia virginica), bearded shorthusk (Brachyelytrum erectum), plumegrass (Erianthus), broadleaf uniola (Uniola latifolia), and bottlebrush (Hystrix patula). Adult Food: Dung, fungi, carrion, and sap from willows, poplars, and birch (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Satyrinae, most species

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species has been found and where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a place where at least one has been collected or otherwise reliably verified in association with sufficient habitat to sustain a population. Verification standards vary with species but sight records should generally not be used unless only one species of that genus is possible at the location. In many cases photographs will suffice although specimens are always preferred except for taxa for which collection is illegal.
Mapping Guidance: Habitats for this group include larval foodplant patches, some intervening areas and for some species adjacent habitat (e.g. forest adjacent to wetlands for Satyrodes appalachia). Consult habitat and foodplant comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences for individual species. Usually the foodplant will be very useful for mapping occurrences of the cane feeding Enodia and not especially useful for the others which are probably not specialists beyond genus level overall, but could be locally. For species such as Enodia and occasionally eastern Cercyonis which have well defined male perching and mating areas these are definitely an important part of the occurrence even if they are slightly removed (generally<100 meters) from the foodplant stands.
Separation Barriers: None known
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: If the species occurs in habitat patches within a discrete and distinctive natural community such as a savanna or wetland or riparian complex consider all such colonies as one metapopulation occurrence by using the suitable habitat distance.
Separation Justification: The distances are arbitrary but reflect the fact that most species, even most of the more "colonial" ones, are somewhat to highly dispersive and do move into and through unsuitable habitats and also that suitable habitat is nearly always fully occupied except in Neonympha which are not part of this group. For most taxa occurrences normally occupy roughly 50-500 hectares but a few are much smaller. However compared to other Nymphalidae foodplants for this group tend to be less clear than usual and there are probably more likely to be other important habitat features. Thus there may be more uncertainty than usual as to just what is suitable habitat. In addition these butterflies are not especially strong fliers. Therefore a smaller suitable habitat distance seems appropriate.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In most cases inferred extent is simply all suitable contiguous habitat, but when habitat is extensive it should be capped at 1 kilometer radius pending further information.
Date: 12Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Notes: This grouping is mostly for genera such as Cercyonis, Megisto, Enodia, Coenonympha which contain mainly globally secure species that have not been well studied. In practice most tracked taxa are likely to be subspecies of very limited range for which occurrences should usually be obvious.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Jul2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, T.J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh, PA. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • Belth, Jeffrey E. 2013. Butterflies of Indiana A Field Guide. Indiana University Press.Bloomington, IN.

  • Bess, James. 2005. A Report on the Remnant-Dependent Insects of the Coastal Zone Natural Area Remnants in Northwest Indiana. 23 pp..

  • COVELL, C.V., JR. 1999. THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY: AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST. KENTUCKY STATE NATURE PRESERVES COMMISSION SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES 6:1-220.

  • Chermock, R. L. 1947. Notes on North American Enodias (Lepidoptera). Entomological News 58(2):29-35.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Grkovich, A. and H. Pavulaan. 2003. A case for taxonomic recognition of the taxon Enodia anthedon borealis A. H. Clark (Satyridae). The Taxonomic Report 4(5):1-15. Available at: http://tils-ttr.org/ttr/ttr-4-5.pdf

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Opler, P.A. (chair), J.M. Burns, J.D. LaFontaine, R.K. Robbins, and F. Sperling. 1998. Scientific names of North American butterflies. Fort Collins, CO. Unpublished review draft.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R., J. Landry, B. C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.J. Van Neiukerken, J.R. DeWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari, and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated Checklist of the Moth and Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. Bulgaria. 580 pp.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. 583 pp.

  • Shuey, John. 1995. Indiana S-Ranks for Butterflies. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 10 pp.

  • Shull, Ernest M. 1987. The Butterflies of Indiana. Publ. by Indiana Acad. Science, distributed by Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington/Indianapolis, 262 pp.

  • de Lesse , J. H. 1957. Révision du genre Lethe (S. L.)(Lep. Nymphalidae Satyrinae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France 125:75-95.

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