Lesquerella globosa - (Desv.) S. Wats.
Globe Bladderpod
Other English Common Names: Globose Bladderpod, Lesquereux's Mustard, Short's Bladderpod
Other Common Names: globe bladderpod
Synonym(s): Physaria globosa (Desv.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lesquerella globosa (Desv.) S. Wats. (TSN 23184)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141118
Element Code: PDBRA1N0N0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Lesquerella
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lesquerella globosa
Taxonomic Comments: Generally accepted species (e.g., Rollins, 1993; Kartesz, 1994, 1999; USFWS, 2004).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Interior Low Plateaus Province, from middle Tennessee through north-central Kentucky and into southern Indiana. twenty-five sites are currently known, most with very few plants in most years, generally about 2,000-2,800 plants altogether. This species exhibits wide population changes from year to year due to variable germination and seedling survival levels in its arid microhabitat (many biennials have a wide fluctuation in numbers from year to year). Road construction and maintenance activities such as herbicide use, grading of road shoulders, and mowing during the growing season continue to threaten many of the sites. Exotic species are also a significant ongoing threat. Some sites adjacent to rivers are threatened by water-level manipulation.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S1), Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (01Aug2014)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southwest Indiana, north central Kentucky, and north central Tennessee.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Most sites have few plants, so area occupied presumably very small.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 25 extant element occurrences as of 2015 (NatureServe Central Database; USFWS 2004). There are 15 extant occurrences in Tennessee, 6 in Kentucky and one in Indiana. Eight sites are historic, 10 are extirpated, and at 13 sites, no plants were found during the last survey (NatureServe Central Database 2015).

Population Size Comments: Populations can vary from two individuals to 1,500 individuals (Ratzlaff 2001), with populations fluctuating from year to year depending on successful germination and seedling survival (Bryan 1986). Total population size varies from 2,000-2,800.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Nearly all sites considered small and vulnerable to extirpation (NatureServe Central Database 2015; USFWS 2004).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Although the habitat (cliffs and talus slopes) is mostly unsuitable for other uses, road construction has resulted in the degradation or destruction of several occurrences and continues to be a threat to nearly all occurrences. Specifically, road maintenance activities that have threatened and degraded this species in the past include: bank stabilization, herbicide use, mowing during the growing season, grading of road shoulders and road widening or repaving (Ratzlaff 2001; USFWS, 2004).

Inappropriate water-level manipulation along impoundment shores also threatens this species (USFWS, 2004).

Invasive non-native plants species threaten nearly all populations of this species. Specific non-natives identified as significant potential threats are: Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover), Melilotis alba (sweet clover), Festuca pratensis (fescue), Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose), and Camassis scilloides (wild hyacinth) (Ratzlaff 2001).

Commercial and residential construction is a threat to this bladderpod at several sites, and can destroy entire populations or severely damage them by sediment runoff from the construction sites (Ratzlaff 2001; USFWS, 2004).

Other human-related threats include trash dumping, and cattle and goat grazing (Ratzlaff 2001; USFWS, 2004). Inappropriate specimen collection for scientific or novelty purposes is a minor threat due to the low numbers of individuals at most sites (USFWS, 2004).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Reduction or loss of sites due to road construction and maintenance, water-level manipulation, and invasive species is continuing (USFWS, 2004).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Historically this species is known from 57 locations and as of 2001, by 2001, only 33 occurrences were known (Ratzlaff 2001). Overall, it appears that this species is declining due to a variety of persisting threats. For example, occurrences along the Cumberland River have been destroyed due to water level manipulation (USFWS, 2004). It is unclear how these counts compare to the element occurrences but this trend is also supported by EO data which would overlap these locations: Eight EOs are historic, 10 are extirpated, and at 13 sites, no plants were found during the last survey (NatureServe Central Database 2015).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Population numbers of this seed-banking mustard vary substantially from year to year, with maintenance of seed-bank diversity dependent on significant reproduction in at least some years. Shading from overtopping trees or invasive shrubs can deplete populations as well. Many sites are on roadsides, where they are no longer within natural ecosystems (USFWS, 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Most sites involve limestone or other calcareous rocks, a common substrate in the species' general range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southwest Indiana, north central Kentucky, and north central Tennessee.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IN, KY, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Posey (18129)
KY Anderson (21005), Bourbon (21017)*, Clark (21049), Fayette (21067), Franklin (21073), Garrard (21079)*, Jessamine (21113), Madison (21151), Mercer (21167)*, Nelson (21179)*, Powell (21197)*, Scott (21209)*, Wolfe (21237)*, Woodford (21239)
TN Cheatham (47021), Davidson (47037), Dickson (47043), Jackson (47087), Maury (47119)*, Montgomery (47125), Rutherford (47149)*, Smith (47159), Trousdale (47169)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 South Fork Licking (05100102)+*, Upper Kentucky (05100204)+*, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106)+, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+, Stones (05130203)+*, Harpeth (05130204)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Red (05130206)+*, Salt (05140102)+*, Rolling Fork (05140103)+*, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+
06 Lower Duck (06040003)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect, short-lived perennial (or biennial) herb with slender, leafy stems that spread from the base and are 3-5 dm tall, giving vigorous plants a bushy appearence. Leaves are densely hairy, grayish-green. Flowers are bright yellow to yellow-orange, cross-shaped, borne in elongated clusters of up to 50 flowers. Blooms April-early June. Fruits are globe-shaped.
General Description: Plant an erect short-lived perennial (or biennial) herb whose slender leafy stems radiate from the base, and are 3-5 dm tall, giving it a bushy appearance. Leaves densely hairy, grayish-green, simple and alternate on the stem. Flowers are bright yellow to yellow-orange, cross-shaped, each having 4 spatula-shaped petals about 5 mm long. Fruit is a nearly globe-shaped capsule, about 3 mm in diameter, with 1 or 2 seeds in each cell.
Technical Description: Plant an erect short-lived perennial (or biennial) herb whose slender leafy stems radiate from the base, and are 3-5 dm tall, giving it a bushy appearance. Leaves densely hairy, grayish-green, simple and alternate on the stem. Stem leaves narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, 1.5-3 cm long x 3-8 mm wide, basal leaves slightly larger. Flowers are bright yellow to yellow-orange, cross-shaped, each having 4 spatula-shaped petals about 5 mm long. The inflorescences are racemes up to 10 cm long at maturity; each raceme produces up to 50 flowers, which are borne on short, spreading stalks. Fruit is a nearly globe-shaped capsule, about 3 mm in diameter, with 1 or 2 seeds in each cell. Each capsule has a persistent style, longer than the capsule itself.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Even though there are many members of the Mustard Family in the range of this species, no other plant shares this combination of characters: bright yellow flowers, grayish-green stems and foliage, globe-shaped fruits with a long style, perennial habit, and the habitat of limestone rocky cliffs.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Forest/Woodland, Old field
Habitat Comments: Dry, open limestone ledges on river bluffs, talus of lower bluff slopes, and shale at cliff bases. These are usually south- to west-facing rocky slopes, and the tops, ledges, or bases of steep cliffs, often along major waterways, such as the Cumberland River (Pyne et al. 1995). Also on thin, calcareous soils in cedar glades. The plants should be sought on dry limestone rocks or open rock ledges. The species has also colonized artificial surfaces, especially roadcuts, downhill from natural or semi-natural bluffs.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. This species seems to require open areas, so manual removal of shrubs would help open the habitat where it is declining due to being shaded. Controlled burning could also be beneficial in this situation. Mechanical disturbance of the area should be limited or avoided because the soils are thin where this species occurs (Pyne et al. 1995); soil compaction and damage to the seed bank could occur. Non-native plants should be controlled so that they do not dominate the vegetation where this species grows.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Individual plants (counting stems if needed) totaling 500, the population covering any area over 0.25 miles long (usually in a narrow area of 200 m wide or less along a slope). Evidence of reproduction occurring. The habitat is naturally open due to edaphic conditions especially rock outcropping. Plants often occur in small groupings along a cliffline or slope and these are to be tallied into a single occurrence. Presence of exotic pest plants/ weedy species less than 10% of the herbaceous cover.
Good Viability: Plants totaling 500 to 300 and the population covering an area of 5 acres or more. Evidence of reproduction. Habitat is naturally open due to edaphic conditions but the conditions may also have been created as a result of disturbance i.e. logging.
Fair Viability: Plants totaling 300 to about 40 in either natural conditions (a natural cliffline or thin-soiled ridge) or habitat expanded as a result of disturbance.
Poor Viability: Fewer than 40 plants in any habitat.
Justification: Based on the distribution of population sizes and habitat reported for range-wide.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 24Jan2005
Author: White, D.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: D. White (1997), rev. Pyne/Maybury (1996), rev. Maybury (2002), rev. L. Oliver (2004), rev. L. Morse (2005), rev. A. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 22Jun2015
Management Information Edition Author: Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Al-Shehbaz, I.A., and S.L. O'Kane. 2002. Lesquerella is united with Physaria (Brassicaceae). Novon 12(3): 319-329.

  • Bryan, H. 1986. Short's bladderpod, Lesquerella globosa; A candidate for federal listing. Kentucky Native Plant Society.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kral, R. 1983a. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, Atlanta, GA. Vol. 1: 718 pp.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Pyne, M., M. Gay, and A. Shea. 1995. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 5. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Ratzlaff, A. 2001. Candidate and listing priority assignment form: Lesquerella globosa. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ashevill, North Carolina Office.

  • Rollins, R.C. 1993a. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 976 pp.

  • Rollins, R.C., and E.A. Shaw. 1973. The genus Lesquerella (Cruciferae) in North America. Harvard Univ. Press. Cambridge, MA. 288 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Lesquerella globosa. 8 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2014. Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short?s Bladderpod), Helianthus verticillatus (Whorled sunflower), and Leavenworthia crassa (Fleshy-Fruit Gladecress). Federal Register 79(148): 44712-44718.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's bladderpod), Helianthus verticillatus (whorled sunflower), and Leavenworthia crassa (fleshy-fruit gladecress). Federal Register 78(149): 47109-47134.

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