Lepomis miniatus - Jordan, 1877
Redspotted Sunfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lepomis miniatus (Jordan, 1877) (TSN 168157)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105029
Element Code: AFCQB11120
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Sunfishes and Freshwater Basses
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Centrarchidae Lepomis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lepomis miniatus
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly regarded as a subspecies of Lepomis punctatus. Warren (1992) examined morphological variation and considered biochemical data (e.g., Bermingham and Avise 1986) and hypothesized that punctatus and miniatus are separate species and that upper Coosa system and Lookout Creek (Tennessee drainage) populations are of uncertain taxonomic status. Etnier and Starnes (1993) tentatively allocated the problematic populations to L. punctatus and accepted Warren's recognition of miniatus as a full species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in Gulf of Mexico drainages of the southeastern and south-central U.S.; common in many areas; has declined in the north due to deterioration of water quality and loss of habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S2), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4S5), Oklahoma (S4?), Tennessee (S3), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Range includes Gulf Slope drainages from about the Apalachicola drainage westward to the Nueces River, Texas; it extends northward in the Mississippi River basin to central Illinois; the species has been introduced in the Devils River (Rio Grande drainage), Texas, and in several places near the outer margin of the range. Lepomis miniatus hybridizes with L. punctatus in portions of Georgia, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Overall, no major threats are known, but abundance has declined in the northern part of the range due to deterioration of water quality and loss of habitat (Herkert 1992).

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Range includes Gulf Slope drainages from about the Apalachicola drainage westward to the Nueces River, Texas; it extends northward in the Mississippi River basin to central Illinois; the species has been introduced in the Devils River (Rio Grande drainage), Texas, and in several places near the outer margin of the range. Lepomis miniatus hybridizes with L. punctatus in portions of Georgia, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Alexander (17003)*, Cass (17017)*, Fulton (17057), Gallatin (17059), Hardin (17069), Knox (17095), Lawrence (17101)*, Mason (17125), Massac (17127), Peoria (17143), Piatt (17147), Pope (17151)*, Pulaski (17153), Putnam (17155), Tazewell (17179), Union (17181), White (17193)
KY Ballard (21007), Butler (21031), Calloway (21035), Carlisle (21039), Christian (21047), Fulton (21075), Graves (21083), Hickman (21105), Hopkins (21107), Logan (21141), Marshall (21157)*, McCracken (21145), Muhlenberg (21177), Todd (21219), Trigg (21221)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Chipola (03130012), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104)*, Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Middle Green (05110003)+, Pond (05110006)+, Embarras (05120112)+*, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Little Wabash (05120114)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Saline (05140204)+, Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Spoon (07130005)+, Upper Sangamon (07130006)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Upper Yazoo (08030206)*, Big Sunflower (08030207), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
11 Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009)*, Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Little Red (11010014), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Lake Texoma (11130210), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), North Galveston Bay (12040203), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103), Leon (12070201), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Concho (12090105), Pecan Bayou (12090107), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107)
13 Lower Devils (13040302), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A fish (sunfish) not more than 20 cm long.
Reproduction Comments: Spawning probably peaks in spring and summer; male guards eggs; sexually mature at 2 years old or older (Manooch 1984, Lee et al. 1980, Etnier and Starnes 1993).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Swamps, sloughs, bottomland lakes, pools of creeks and small to medium rivers, less brackish portions of coastal estuaries; common in quiet or moderately flowing waters with heavy vegetation or other cover and bottom of mud or sand. Eggs are laid in a nest made on the bottom in shallow water near cover by the male.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds mainly on benthic insects and crustaceans; sometimes eats terrestrial insects that enter the water.
Length: 20 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Sunfishes (Centrarchids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Although members of this group vary in size and probably in typical movement distances, it is likely that even the smallest centrarchids occasionally disperse as far as do large centrarchids. Hence a single separation distance is used for all members of the family. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Note that some species some species may at time be hard to detect. For example, nowhere is the Carolina pygmy sunfish known to be abundant. In addition, it is essentially an annual species, with adults dying soon after spawning, at an age of 12-15 months. In addition, young are so small that, for a several months, documentation of the species' presence at a particular locality might be almost impossible, at least without preserving specimens. Therefore, negative data at a known locality should be carefully interpreted (P. Shute).
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30May2013
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Nov1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bermingham, E., and J. C. Avise. 1986. Molecular zoogeography of freshwater fishes in the southeastern United States. Genetics 113:939-965.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Animals. 101st ESPB Meeting, August 21, 1998. 16pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr. 1992. Variation of the spotted sunfish, Lepomis punctatus complex (Centrarchidae): meristics, morphometrics, pigmentation and species limits. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 12:1-47.

  • Warren, M.L., Jr. 1989. Geographic variation of the spotted sunfish, LEPOMIS PUNCTATUS complex (Centrarchidae), with recognition of phylogenetic species. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Ill. Univ., Carbondale, IL. 283pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

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