Lepisosteus osseus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Longnose Gar
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 161094)
French Common Names: lépisosté osseux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106443
Element Code: AFCBA01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Lepisosteiformes Lepisosteidae Lepisosteus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lepisosteus osseus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 09Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S2?), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S4), New Jersey (SH), New Mexico (S2), New York (S3), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S3), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the North American Atlantic slope from the Delaware River, New Jersey, to central Florida; St. Lawrence River, Quebec, through Great Lakes (except Superior), and Mississippi River basin to the Red River (Hudson Bay basin), North Dakota, and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from central Florida to Rio Grande drainage, Texas and Mexico (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but apparently quite large (likely greater than 100,000). This species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the North American Atlantic slope from the Delaware River, New Jersey, to central Florida; St. Lawrence River, Quebec, through Great Lakes (except Superior), and Mississippi River basin to the Red River (Hudson Bay basin), North Dakota, and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from central Florida to Rio Grande drainage, Texas and Mexico (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Caroline (24011), Charles (24017), Prince Georges (24033), Worcester (24047)
NM Chaves (35005)*, Eddy (35015)*
PA Allegheny (42003), Armstrong (42005)*, Beaver (42007), Bucks (42017)*, Crawford (42039)*, Erie (42049), Fayette (42051), Greene (42059), Warren (42123)*
SD Beadle (46005), Charles Mix (46023), Clay (46027), Davison (46035), Hanson (46061), Hutchinson (46067), Union (46127), Yankton (46135)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004)*, Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006)*, Missisquoi (02010007), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lower Delaware (02040202), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002)*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)*, Severn (02060004), Patuxent (02060006)*, Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007)*, Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, Lower Potomac (02070011)+, Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+, Upper James (02080201), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Upper Catawba (03050101), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Lower Broad (03050106), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Broad (03060104), Middle Savannah (03060106), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Peace (03100101), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102)*, Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001)*, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)*, Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), St. Joseph (04050001), Lower Grand (04050006), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), St. Joseph (04100003), Auglaize (04100007)*, Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)*, Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)*, Seneca (04140201), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)*, Indian (04150303)*, St. Regis (04150306)*
05 Conewango (05010002)*, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, West Fork (05020002), Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204)*, Tuscarawas (05040001), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109)*, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)*, Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114)*, Skillet (05120115)*, Lower White (05120202), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205)*, Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)*, South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), Skunk (07080107)*, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Middle Iowa (07080208)*, Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Lower Rock (07090005), North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002)*, South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Kankakee (07120001), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)*, Obion (08010202), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202)*, Bayou Pierre (08060203), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Middle James (10160006)+, Lower James (10160011)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Vermillion (10170102)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower Platte (10200202), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002)*, Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007)*, West Nishnabotna (10240002)*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Nodaway (10240010)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011), Lower Republican (10250017), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Lower Saline (10260010), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202)*, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106)*, Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108)*, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Northern Beaver (11130208), Lake Texoma (11130210), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Lower Neches (12020003), Lower Angelina (12020005), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Spring (12040102), Sabine Lake (12040201), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Middle Nueces (12110105), San Miguel (12110109)
13 Upper Pecos (13060003)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+, Rio Felix (13060009)+*, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+, Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001)+, Delaware (13070002), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring or early summer, depending on locality. Eggs hatch in about a week. Males sexually mature by age III or IV, females by age VI (Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May make short upstream spawning migrations (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes large weedy lakes and reservoirs, backwaters and quiet pools of medium to large rivers, stagnant ponds, sloughs, canals, brackish waters of coastal inlets, occasionally coastal marine waters; often near vegetation or close to submerged or overhanging objects by day. Young tend to occupy shallows, larger individuals in deeper water (Sublette et al. 1990). Spawning occurs over weed beds of shallow waters in rivers, usually in grass and weeds in shoal water in lakes; or near stone piles of railroad bridges (Becker 1983), in nests of smallmouth bass (Goff 1984), or over gravel bars (Sublette et al. 1990).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly fishes, but very young eat small crustaceans or larvae of aquatic insects. May eat crabs in brackish water. Feeds mainly at or near surface.
Phenology Comments: Feeds most actively at night (Becker 1983).
Length: 200 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Flesh is edible and considered a delicacy by many (roe thought to be poisonous) (Sublette et al. 1990).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Gars

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Separation distance (in aquatic kilometers) is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

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  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Haase, B. L. 1969. An ecological life history of the long-nose gar, Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus), in Lake Mendota and in several other lakes of southern Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin, Madison. PhD Thesis. 224 pp.

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  • NETSH,N.F.,AND A.WITT.1962.CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE HISTORYOF THE LONG NOSE GAR IN MISSOURI.TRANS.AMER.FISH SOC.,91(3):251-262.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Netsch, N. F. and A. Witt, Jr. 1962. Contributions to the life history of the longnose gar, Lepisosteus osseus, in Missouri. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91(3):251-262.

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  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

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  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

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  • Trembley, F. J. 1930. The gar-pike of Lake Champlain. Pp. 139-145 in E. Moore, A biological survey of the Champlain watershed. State of New York Conservation Department, Supplement to the 19th Annual Report (1929), Albany, New York.

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  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH). 2010. Ichthyology Collection: On-line Collection Database. Accessed May 2010. Online. Available: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Collection/collection.htm

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Rohde, F. C., R. G. Arndt, and S. M. Smith. 2001. Longitudinal succession of fishes in the Dan River in Virginia and North Carolina (Blue Ridge/Piedmont Provinces). Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings 42:1-13.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

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  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Straight, C.A., B. Albanese, and B.J. Freeman. [Internet]. [updated 2009 March 25]. Fishes of Georgia Website, Georgia Museum of Natural History; Accessed May 2010. Online. Available from: http://fishesofgeorgia.uga.edu

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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