Lasmigona compressa - (I. Lea, 1829)
Creek Heelsplitter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lasmigona compressa (I. Lea, 1829) (TSN 80138)
French Common Names: lasmigone des ruisseaux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.111988
Element Code: IMBIV22020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Lasmigona
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lasmigona compressa
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a wide ranging species that is stable in most areas except at the edges of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (16Jul1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (08Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S2), Kentucky (S1), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S3), Nebraska (SH), New York (S3S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S2), South Dakota (S1), Vermont (S2), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S3S4)
Canada Alberta (S1S2), Manitoba (S2), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (SU)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is found in the Canadian Interior basin, upper Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence River systems extending from Saskatchewan to Nebraska and eastward to Vermont and Quebec and south as far as West Virginia; and the Hudson River system of New York (Burch, 1975; Clarke, 1981). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Minnesota, this species is found statewide, though rare in the Minnesota River and southern streams (Sietman, 2003); including Red, Lake Superior, and Lake of the Woods (Graf, 1997; Cvancara, 1997). In Illinois, it is occasionally in small streams in the N half (Cummings and Mayer, 1997); incl. Sangamon (Schanzle and Cummings, 1991), Rock (Tiemann et al., 2004), and Upper Illinois (Sietman et al., 2001). In Indiana, it is in the St. Joseph (Cedar Creek) (Pryor, 2005), Wabash tributaries (Fisher, 2006), Muscatatuck (Harmon, 1989), Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), and East Fork White River drainages (Harmon, 1992). In Ohio, it is throughout but sporadic including Lake Erie (rare) (Watters, 1992; 1995; Lyons et al., 2007; Watters et al., 2009), Swan Creek (Lower Maumee) (Grabarciewicz, 2008); Raccoon (Hoggarth et al., 2007). In West Virginia, it is known recently from the Ohio River (Taylor and Horn, 1983). It was recently documented in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin in tributary streams only but absent from the mainstem (Schanzle et al., 2004). In South Dakota, it has been reported recently from the Big Sioux River only (Backlund, 2000; Skadsen and Perkins, 2000). In Vermont, it is found in rivers only of the Lake Champlain basin and some tributaries that enter the St. Lawrence basin from there (Fichtel and Smith, 1995). Athearn (1992) cites the St. Francois River in Drummond Co., Becancour River in Nicolet Co. (both Quebec); and Wapsipinicon River in Cubhanan Co., Iowa. In Wisconsin, it is widepsread but usually not common (Mathiak, 1979). In Kentucky, it is sporadic in Tygarts Creek (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003). This species was recently collected from 6 of 38 sites surveyed (2 as dead shells only) in the Tonawanda Creek basin (Niagara River drainage) in western New York (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000), but is known from throughout the Allegheny, Erie-Niagara, Lake Ontario (including upper Genesee), and Champlain basins; and into the Hudson basin with a few potential St. Lawrence basin records (Strayer and Jirka, 1997). Specimens from the Black River (St. Clair drainage- see Strayer, 1980), Michigan, were relocated to the Detroit River in 1992 (Trdan and Hoeh, 1993). It occurs throughout the Michigan upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939) including Kalamazoo River (Mulcrone and Mehlne, 2001) and Lakes Michigan and St. Clair (Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Canada, this species is distributed from Alberta to Quebec and is abundant in the central provinces (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004) including Assiniboine drainage, Manitoba (Watson, 2000), and Lower Ottawa (Schueler and Karstad, 2007) and Sydenham in Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003). Saskatchewan museum records are known from the North Saskatchewan River near Edam, Carrot River system near Aylsham, and Etomami River near Hudson Bay. Clarke (1981) includes Hudson Bay drainage from Saskatchewan to Ontario; Great Lakes-St. Lawrence drainage from Minnesota to Quebec and Vermont; Hudson River system in New York; and upper Ohio-Mississippi system. Although Clarke (1981) lists its western range limits as Saskatchewan, it is known from the Battle River system in Alberta (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004). It is historical in Manitoba (Pip, 2000).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Smith and Crabtree (2010) found this species at 6 of 32 sites (2 with recruitment) along the entire length of Pennsylvania's French Creek.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Zebra mussels threaten the South Nation River population in Ontario (Schueler and Karstad, 2007).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Pip (2000) was unable to find this species in Manitoba in recent surveys despite historical presence in similar surveys in 1975-1978.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is found in the Canadian Interior basin, upper Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence River systems extending from Saskatchewan to Nebraska and eastward to Vermont and Quebec and south as far as West Virginia; and the Hudson River system of New York (Burch, 1975; Clarke, 1981). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, SD, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Appanoose (19007), Black Hawk (19013), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Cerro Gordo (19033), Chickasaw (19037), Delaware (19055), Dubuque (19061), Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Mitchell (19131), Story (19169), Winneshiek (19191)
KY Campbell (21037)*, Carter (21043), Elliott (21063)*, Greenup (21089), Kenton (21117)*
MI Allegan (26005), Alpena (26007)*, Antrim (26009)*, Barry (26015)*, Benzie (26019)*, Berrien (26021)*, Branch (26023)*, Calhoun (26025), Cass (26027)*, Cheboygan (26031)*, Chippewa (26033)*, Clare (26035)*, Clinton (26037), Crawford (26039)*, Dickinson (26043), Eaton (26045)*, Emmet (26047)*, Gladwin (26051)*, Grand Traverse (26055)*, Gratiot (26057)*, Hillsdale (26059)*, Ingham (26065)*, Ionia (26067)*, Iron (26071), Isabella (26073), Jackson (26075), Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kalkaska (26079)*, Kent (26081), Lake (26085)*, Lapeer (26087)*, Lenawee (26091), Livingston (26093)*, Mackinac (26097)*, Macomb (26099), Manistee (26101)*, Marquette (26103)*, Mecosta (26107)*, Menominee (26109), Midland (26111)*, Monroe (26115), Montcalm (26117)*, Montmorency (26119)*, Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Oakland (26125)*, Oceana (26127)*, Ogemaw (26129)*, Osceola (26133)*, Oscoda (26135), Otsego (26137)*, Ottawa (26139)*, Presque Isle (26141)*, Saginaw (26145), Sanilac (26151), Shiawassee (26155)*, St. Clair (26147), St. Joseph (26149)*, Tuscola (26157)*, Van Buren (26159)*, Washtenaw (26161)*, Wayne (26163)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Benton (27009), Big Stone (27011), Brown (27015), Carlton (27017), Cass (27021), Chippewa (27023), Chisago (27025), Clay (27027), Clearwater (27029), Crow Wing (27035), Dakota (27037), Dodge (27039), Douglas (27041), Faribault (27043), Fillmore (27045), Goodhue (27049), Grant (27051), Hubbard (27057), Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Kanabec (27065), Kittson (27069), Koochiching (27071), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lake (27075), Lake of the Woods (27077), Lyon (27083), Mahnomen (27087), Meeker (27093), Mille Lacs (27095), Morrison (27097), Mower (27099), Norman (27107)*, Olmsted (27109), Otter Tail (27111), Pennington (27113), Pine (27115), Pipestone (27117), Polk (27119), Pope (27121), Red Lake (27125), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rice (27131), Rock (27133), Roseau (27135), Sherburne (27141), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145), Steele (27147), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151), Todd (27153), Wadena (27159), Watonwan (27165), Wilkin (27167), Wright (27171), Yellow Medicine (27173)
OH Allen (39003), Ashland (39005), Ashtabula (39007), Columbiana (39029), Coshocton (39031), Darke (39037), Fairfield (39045), Geauga (39055), Greene (39057), Hancock (39063), Hardin (39065), Henry (39069), Holmes (39075), Huron (39077), Logan (39091), Lorain (39093), Lucas (39095), Madison (39097), Miami (39109), Morrow (39117), Muskingum (39119), Noble (39121), Pike (39131), Portage (39133), Putnam (39137), Trumbull (39155), Union (39159), Wayne (39169), Williams (39171), Wood (39173), Wyandot (39175)
PA Butler (42019), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Lawrence (42073), McKean (42083), Mercer (42085), Venango (42121), Warren (42123), Washington (42125)
SD Brookings (46011), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Hamlin (46057), Minnehaha (46099), Moody (46101), Roberts (46109)
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Essex (50009), Lamoille (50015)*, Rutland (50021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Brule (04030106)+, Michigamme (04030107)+*, Menominee (04030108)+, Cedar-Ford (04030109)+*, Escanaba (04030110)+*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+*, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Manistee (04060103)+*, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+*, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+*, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+*, St. Marys (04070001)+*, Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003)+*, Cheboygan (04070004)+*, Black (04070005)+*, Thunder Bay (04070006)+*, Au Sable (04070007)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+*, Pine (04080202)+, Shiawassee (04080203)+*, Flint (04080204)+*, Cass (04080205)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+*, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Tiffin (04100006)+*, Auglaize (04100007)+, Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+*, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104)+*, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Licking (05100101)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Redeye (07010107)+, Long Prairie (07010108)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, Rum (07010207)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Root (07040008)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, South Skunk (07080105)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, Winnebago (07080203)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+
09 Otter Tail (09020103)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Elm-Marsh (09020107)+*, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Sandhill-Wilson (09020301)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Glochidial hosts include: Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque, 1820) black bullhead (McGill et al., 2002); Ameiurus natalis (Lesueur, 1819) yellow bullhead (McGill et al., 2002); Cottus cognatus Richardson, 1836 slimy sculpin (Hove et al., 1995); Culaea inconstans (Kirtland, 1841) brook stickleback (McGill et al., 2002); Cyprinella spiloptera (Cope, 1868) spotfin shiner (Hove et al., 1995; McGill et al., 2002); Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur, 1818) gizzard shad (McGill et al., 2002); Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs, 1929 brassy minnow (McGill et al., 2002); Lepisopsteus platostomus Rafinesque, 1820 shortnose gar (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque, 1819 green sunfish (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis humilis (Girard, 1858) orange-spotted sunfish (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 bluegill (McGill et al., 2002); Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, 1802 smallmouth bass (McGill et al., 2002); Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, 1818 emerald shiner (McGill et al., 2002); Notropis volucellus (Cope, 1865) mimic shiner (McGill et al., 2002); Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814) yellow perch (Hove et al., 1995); Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 guppy (Tompa, 1979); Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur, 1829) black crappie (Hove et al., 1995; McGill et al., 2002); Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque, 1818) flathead catfish (McGill et al., 2002); Rhinichthys cataractae (Valenciennes, 1842) longnose dace (McGill et al., 2002); Rhinichthys spp. (McGill et al., 2002); Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill, 1818) creek chub (McGill et al., 2002)
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species occurs principally in rivers and streams of various sizes, even in very small creeks and is rare in lakes. It is found on substrates of gravel, sand, or mud (Clarke, 1981).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro ( for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Jun2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Athearn, H.D. 1992. New records for some species of Alasmidontini. Malacology Data Net, 3(1-4): 90-91.

  • Baker, F. C. 1928.  The fresh water mollusca of Wisconsin:  part II: Pelecypoda.  Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin No. 70, Part II.  University of Wisconsin, Madison.  495 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., C. Gatenby, R. Heisler, E. Plummer, K. Stramer, and W. Ostlie. 1995. A survey of the mussels of the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa rivers, Minnesota, 1990. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 131 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., E. Plummer, and D. Olson. 1988. A survey of the mussels of the Zumbro River drainage, southeastern Minnesota. Report submitted to Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 27 pp. + tables, figures, and appendices.

  • Bright, R. C., R. Heisler, S. Breidenbach, and D. Rocha. 1994. Survey of the mussels of the Camp Ripley portions of the Mississippi and Crow Wing rivers, Minnesota: the data. Report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Unpaged.

  • Bright, R. C., T. Atkinson, and C. Gatenby. 1994. Survey of the mussels of the Otter Tail and Pelican rivers, Minnesota: the data. Report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 191 pp.

  • Burch, J.B. 1975a. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.

  • Cicerello, R.R. and G.A. Schuster. 2003. A guide to the freshwater mussels of Kentucky. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 7:1-62.

  • Clarke, A. H. 1985. The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), Part II: Lasmigona and Simpsonais. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 399. 75 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367.

  • Cummings, K.S. and J.M. Berlocher. 1990. The naiades or freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Tippecanoe River, Indiana. Malacological Review 23:83-98.

  • Cvancara, A.M. 1970. Mussels (Unionidae) of the Red River Valley in North Dakota and Minnesota, U.S.A.. Malacologia, 10(1): 57-92.

  • Davis, M. 1987. Freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Cannon River drainage in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 21 pp. + figures and original data sheets.

  • Davis, Mike. 1987. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Cannon River Drainage in Southeastern Minnesota. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in unpublished report.

  • Dawley, C. 1947. Distribution of aquatic mollusks in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 38:671-697.

  • Doolittle, T. C. J. 1988. Distribution and relative abundance of freshwater mussels in the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resouces. Unpaged.

  • Fichtel, C. and D.G. Smith. 1995. The freshwater mussels of Vermont. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department. Technical Report 18. 54 pp.

  • Fisher, B.E. 2006. Current status of freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida) in the Wabash River drainage of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 115(2): 103-109.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba Mollusk species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Grabarkiewicz, J.D. 2008. Three years of unionid surveys in Swan Creek, Lower Maumee River watershed, Lucas Co., OH. Final Report to the Ohio Division of Wildlife, Toledo Naturalists' Association, and Metroparks of the Toledo Area, Toledo, Ohio. 18 pp. + app.

  • Harmon, J.L. 1992. Naiades (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Sugar Creek, east fork White River drainage, in central Indiana. Malacology Data Net 3(1-4):31-42.

  • Hove, M., R. Engelking, and C. Freiburger. 1995. Qualitative bivalve survey of the Sandy River drainage, Minnesota. Report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39 pp.

  • Hove, M.C., R.A. Engelking, M.E. Peteler, and E.M. Peterson. 1995. Life history research on the creek heelsplitter, Lasmigona compressa. Triannual Unionid Report, 6: 1 pp.

  • Howard, A.D. 1915. Some exceptional cases of breeding among the Unionidae. The Nautilus 29:4-11.

  • Lefevre, G. and W.C. Curtis. 1910. Reproduction and parasitism in the Unionidae. Journal of Experimental Zoology 9(1):79-115 + 5 plates.

  • Lefevre, G. and W.T. Curtis. 1912. Studies on the reproduction and artificial propogation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 30:102-201.

  • Lyons, M.S., R.A. Krebs, J.P. Holt, L.J. Rundo, and W. Zawiski. 2007. Assessing causes of change in the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Black River, Ohio. American Midland Naturalist, 158: 1-15.

  • Marangelo, P.J. and D.L. Strayer. 2000. The freshwater mussels of the Tonawanda Creek basin in western New York. Walkerana, 11(25): 97-106.

  • McGill, M., M. Hove, T. Diedrich, C. Nelson, W. Taylor, and A. Kapuscinski. 2002. Several fishes are suitable hosts for creek heelsplitter glochidia. Ellipsaria, 4(2): 18-19.

  • Mohler, J.W., P. Morrison, and J. Haas. 2006. The mussels of Muddy Creek on Erie National Wildlife Refuge. Northeastern Naturalist 13(4):569-582.

  • Moyle, P. and J. Bacon. 1969. Distribution and abundance of molluscs in a fresh water environment. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 35(2/3):82-85.

  • Neves, R. J. 1993. A state-of-the-unionids address. Pages 1-10 in K. S. Cummings, A. C. Buchanan, and L. M. Koch, editors. Conservation and management of freshwater mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 189 pp.



  • Pip, E. 2000. The decline of freshwater molluscs in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(4):555-560.


  • Schanzle, R.W. and K.S. Cummings. 1991. A survey of the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Sangamon River basin, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes, 137: 1-25.

  • Schanzle, R.W., G.W. Kruse, J.A. Kath, R.A. Klocek, and K.S. Cummings. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Fox River basin, Illinois and Wisconsin. Illinois Natural History Biological Notes, 141: 1-35.

  • Sietman, B. E. 2003. Field guide to the freshwater mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Skadsen, D.R. and K. Perkins III. 2000. Unionid mussels of the Big Sioux River and tributaries: Moody, Minnehaha, Lincoln, and Union Counties, South Dakota. GFP Report 2000-9 to the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota. 52 pp.

  • Smith, T.A. and D. Crabtree. 2010. Freshwater mussel (Unionidae: Bivalvia) distributions and densities in French Creek, Pennsylvania. Northeastern Naturalist 17(3):387-414.

  • Spoo, A. 2008. The Pearly Mussels of Pennsylvania. Coachwhip Publications: Landisville, Pennsylvania. 210 pp.

  • Strayer, D. 1983. The effects of surface geology and stream size on freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionidae) distribution in southeastern Michigan, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 13:253-264.

  • Strayer, D.L. 1999a. Use of flow refuges by unionid mussels in rivers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18(4):468-476.

  • Strayer, D.L. and J. Ralley. 1993. Microhabitat use by an assemblage of stream-dwelling unionaceans (Bivalvia) including two rare species of Alasmidonta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12(3):247-258.

  • Strayer, David L. 1987. Ecology and zoogeography of the freshwater mollusks of the Hudson River basin. Malacological Review 20:1-68.

  • Strayer, David L. and Andrew R. Fetterman. 1997. Survey of freshwater mussels in the Upper Susquehanna River basin, New York. Report to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Strayer, David L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels (Bivalva: Unionoidea) of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The New York State Education Department.

  • Strayer, David L., Kurt J. Jirka, and Kathryn J. Schneider. 1991. Recent collections of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from western New York. Walkerana 5(12): 63-72.

  • Tompa, A.S. 1979. Life-cycle completion of the freshwater clam Lasmigona compressa (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in an experimental host, Lebistes reticulatus. The Veliger, 22(2): 188-190.

  • Turgeon, D.D., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, W.K. Emerson, W.G. Lyons, W.L. Pratt, C.F.E. Roper, A. Scheltema, E.G. Thompson, and J.D. Williams. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the US and Canada: mollusks. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 16:1-277.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Van der Schalie, H. 1938a. The naiad fauna of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 40:7-78.

  • Watson, E.T., L.C. Graham, and W.G. Franzin. 1998. The distribution of Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2232. Central and Arctic Region, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB. 32 p.

  • Watters, G. Thomas. 1994. An Annotated Bibliography of the Reproduction and Propogation of the Unionoidea (Primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University. In cooperation with Ohio Division of Wildlife. 158 pp.

  • Watters, G. Thomas. 1996. 1996 Survey of the Mussels of the Fish Creek Drainage. Final Report to the Indiana Chapter of The Nature Conservancy.

  • Watters, G.T. 1992a. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-490.

  • Watters, G.T. 1992b. Distribution of the Unionidae in south central Ohio. Malacology Data Net 3(1-4):56-90.

  • Wendeln, K.L., J.R. Runkle, and G.T. Watters. 2009. The freshwater mussels (Unionidae) of Twin Creek, Southwest Ohio. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 24(3):451-460. DOI: 10.1080/02705060.2009.9664318

  • Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, R. S. Butler, K. S. Cummings, J. T. Garner, J. L. Harris, N. A. Johnson, and G. T. Watters. 2017. A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20:33-58.

  • Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9):6-22.

  • Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, Jr., K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993b. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.

  • Young, D. 1911. The implantation of the glochidium on the fish. University of Missouri Bulletin, Science Series 2: 1-16, 3 pls.

  • van der Schalie, H. 1970. Hermaphroditism among North American freshwater mussels. Malacologia 10(1):93-112.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Athearn, H.D. 1963. Some new records of naiades from eastern North America. Sterkiana 9:39.

  • Backlund, D.C. 2000. Summary of current known distribution and status of freshwater mussels (Unionoida) in South Dakota. Central Plains Archaeology, 8(1): 69-77.

  • Badra, P.J. and R.R. Goforth. 2003. Freshwater mussel surveys of Great Lakes tributary rivers in Michigan. Report Number MNFI 2003-15 to the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Coastal Zone Management Unit, Lansing, Michigan. 40 pp.

  • Bogan, A.E. 1993a. Workshop on freshwater bivalves of Pennsylvania. Workshop hosted by Aquatic Systems Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, held at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 6-7 May 1993. 80 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The Freshwater Molluscs of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D.W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1997. Distributional checklist and status of Illinois freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionacea). Pages 129-145 in: K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, C.A. Mayer, and T.J. Naimo (eds.) Conservation and management of freshwater mussels II: initiatives for the future. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, October 1995, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois.

  • Cvancara, A.M. 1983. Aquatic mollusks of North Dakota. Report of Investigation No. 78, North Dakota Geological Survey. Kay's, Inc., Jamestown, North Dakota. 141 pp.

  • Goodrich, C. and H. van der Schalie. 1939. Aquatic mollusks of the upper peninsula of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 43: 1-45.

  • Graf, D.L. 1997. Distribution of unionoid (Bivalvia) faunas in Minnesota, USA. The Nautilus, 110(2): 45-54.

  • Harmon, J.L. 1989. Freshwater bivalve mollusks (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Graham Creek, a small southeastern Indiana stream. Malacology Data Net, 2(5/6): 113-121.

  • Hoggarth, M.A., D.A. Kimberly, and B.G. Van Allen. 2007. A study of the mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Symmes Creek and tributaries in Jackson, Gallia and Lawrence Counties, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 107(4):57-62.

  • Mathiak, H.A. 1979. A river survey of the unionid mussels of Wisconsin, 1973-1977. Sand Shell Press: Horicon, Wisconsin. 75 pp.

  • Metcalfe-Smith, J.L. and B. Cudmore-Vokey. 2004. National general status assessment of freshwater mussels (Unionacea). National Water Research Institute / NWRI Contribution No. 04-027. Environment Canada, March 2004. Paginated separately.

  • Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., J. Di Maio, S.K. Staton, and S.R. De Solla. 2003. Status of the freshwater mussel communities of the Sydenham River, Ontario, Canada. American Midland Naturalist 150:37-50.

  • Morris, T.J. and J. Di Maio. 1999. Current distributions of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in rivers of southwestern Ontario. Malacological Review, 31/32(1): 9-17.

  • Mulcrone, R.S. and C. Mehne. 2001. Freshwater mussels of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, from Battle Creek to Saugatuck. Report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Lansing, Michigan. 15 pp.

  • Pryor, W.W. 2005. Distribution of the native freshwater mussels in the rivers of Allen County, Indiana. Report to the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 71 pp.

  • Schueler, F.W. and A. Karstad. 2007. Report on unionid conservation & exploration in eastern Ontario: 2007. The Popular Clammer: a Newsletter About Freshwater Unionid Mussels in Canada, 1: 1-2.

  • Sietman, B.E., S.D. Whitney, D.E. Kelner, K.D. Blodgett, and H.L. Dunn. 2001. Post-extirpation recovery of the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna in the Upper Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 16(2): 273-281.

  • Strayer, D. 1980. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Clinton River, Michigan, with comments on man's impact on the fauna, 1870-1978. The Nautilus 94(4):142-149.

  • Strayer, D.L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The University of the State of New York. 113 pp. + figures.

  • Taylor, R.W. and K.J. Horn. 1983. A list of freshwater mussels suggested for designation as rare, endangereed or threatened in West Virginia. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science (Biology Section) 54:31-34.

  • Tiemann, J.S., R.E. Szafoni, and K. Roman. 2005. Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) survey of Kyte River, Ogle County, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 98(3-4):159-169.

  • Trdan, R.J. and W.R. Hoeh. 1993. Relocation of two state-listed freshwater mussel species (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana and Epioblasma triquetra) in Michigan. Pages 100-105 in K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, and L.M. Koch. (eds.). Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 189 pp.

  • Watson, E.T. 2000. Distribution and life history of the Unionidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in the Assiniboine River drainage in Manitoba, with special reference to Anodontoides ferussacianus. MS Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 159 pp.

  • Watters, G.T. 1995a. A field guide to the freshwater mussels of Ohio. revised 3rd edition. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Columbus, Ohio. 122 pp.

  • Watters, G.T., M.A. Hoggarth, and D.H. Stansbery. 2009b. The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio. Ohio State University Press: Columbus, Ohio. 421 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.