Lasmigona compressa - (I. Lea, 1829)
Creek Heelsplitter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lasmigona compressa (I. Lea, 1829) (TSN 80138)
French Common Names: lasmigone des ruisseaux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.111988
Element Code: IMBIV22020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Lasmigona
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lasmigona compressa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a wide ranging species that is stable in most areas except at the edges of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (16Jul1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (08Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S2), Kentucky (S1), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S3), Nebraska (SH), New York (S3S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S2), South Dakota (S1), Vermont (S2), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S3S4)
Canada Alberta (S1S2), Manitoba (S2), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (SU)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is found in the Canadian Interior basin, upper Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence River systems extending from Saskatchewan to Nebraska and eastward to Vermont and Quebec and south as far as West Virginia; and the Hudson River system of New York (Burch, 1975; Clarke, 1981). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Minnesota, this species is found statewide, though rare in the Minnesota River and southern streams (Sietman, 2003); including Red, Lake Superior, and Lake of the Woods (Graf, 1997; Cvancara, 1997). In Illinois, it is occasionally in small streams in the N half (Cummings and Mayer, 1997); incl. Sangamon (Schanzle and Cummings, 1991), Rock (Tiemann et al., 2004), and Upper Illinois (Sietman et al., 2001). In Indiana, it is in the St. Joseph (Cedar Creek) (Pryor, 2005), Wabash tributaries (Fisher, 2006), Muscatatuck (Harmon, 1989), Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), and East Fork White River drainages (Harmon, 1992). In Ohio, it is throughout but sporadic including Lake Erie (rare) (Watters, 1992; 1995; Lyons et al., 2007; Watters et al., 2009), Swan Creek (Lower Maumee) (Grabarciewicz, 2008); Raccoon (Hoggarth et al., 2007). In West Virginia, it is known recently from the Ohio River (Taylor and Horn, 1983). It was recently documented in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin in tributary streams only but absent from the mainstem (Schanzle et al., 2004). In South Dakota, it has been reported recently from the Big Sioux River only (Backlund, 2000; Skadsen and Perkins, 2000). In Vermont, it is found in rivers only of the Lake Champlain basin and some tributaries that enter the St. Lawrence basin from there (Fichtel and Smith, 1995). Athearn (1992) cites the St. Francois River in Drummond Co., Becancour River in Nicolet Co. (both Quebec); and Wapsipinicon River in Cubhanan Co., Iowa. In Wisconsin, it is widepsread but usually not common (Mathiak, 1979). In Kentucky, it is sporadic in Tygarts Creek (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003). This species was recently collected from 6 of 38 sites surveyed (2 as dead shells only) in the Tonawanda Creek basin (Niagara River drainage) in western New York (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000), but is known from throughout the Allegheny, Erie-Niagara, Lake Ontario (including upper Genesee), and Champlain basins; and into the Hudson basin with a few potential St. Lawrence basin records (Strayer and Jirka, 1997). Specimens from the Black River (St. Clair drainage- see Strayer, 1980), Michigan, were relocated to the Detroit River in 1992 (Trdan and Hoeh, 1993). It occurs throughout the Michigan upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939) including Kalamazoo River (Mulcrone and Mehlne, 2001) and Lakes Michigan and St. Clair (Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Canada, this species is distributed from Alberta to Quebec and is abundant in the central provinces (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004) including Assiniboine drainage, Manitoba (Watson, 2000), and Lower Ottawa (Schueler and Karstad, 2007) and Sydenham in Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003). Saskatchewan museum records are known from the North Saskatchewan River near Edam, Carrot River system near Aylsham, and Etomami River near Hudson Bay. Clarke (1981) includes Hudson Bay drainage from Saskatchewan to Ontario; Great Lakes-St. Lawrence drainage from Minnesota to Quebec and Vermont; Hudson River system in New York; and upper Ohio-Mississippi system. Although Clarke (1981) lists its western range limits as Saskatchewan, it is known from the Battle River system in Alberta (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004). It is historical in Manitoba (Pip, 2000).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Smith and Crabtree (2010) found this species at 6 of 32 sites (2 with recruitment) along the entire length of Pennsylvania's French Creek.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Zebra mussels threaten the South Nation River population in Ontario (Schueler and Karstad, 2007).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Pip (2000) was unable to find this species in Manitoba in recent surveys despite historical presence in similar surveys in 1975-1978.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is found in the Canadian Interior basin, upper Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence River systems extending from Saskatchewan to Nebraska and eastward to Vermont and Quebec and south as far as West Virginia; and the Hudson River system of New York (Burch, 1975; Clarke, 1981). Estimated range extent based on centroids of mapped level 8 hydrobasins (2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, SD, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Appanoose (19007), Black Hawk (19013), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Cerro Gordo (19033), Chickasaw (19037), Delaware (19055), Dubuque (19061), Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Mitchell (19131), Story (19169), Winneshiek (19191)
KY Campbell (21037)*, Carter (21043), Elliott (21063)*, Greenup (21089), Kenton (21117)*
MI Allegan (26005), Alpena (26007)*, Antrim (26009)*, Barry (26015)*, Benzie (26019)*, Berrien (26021)*, Branch (26023)*, Calhoun (26025), Cass (26027)*, Cheboygan (26031)*, Chippewa (26033)*, Clare (26035)*, Clinton (26037), Crawford (26039)*, Dickinson (26043), Eaton (26045)*, Emmet (26047)*, Gladwin (26051)*, Grand Traverse (26055)*, Gratiot (26057)*, Hillsdale (26059)*, Ingham (26065)*, Ionia (26067)*, Iron (26071), Isabella (26073), Jackson (26075), Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kalkaska (26079)*, Kent (26081), Lake (26085)*, Lapeer (26087)*, Lenawee (26091), Livingston (26093)*, Mackinac (26097)*, Macomb (26099), Manistee (26101)*, Marquette (26103)*, Mecosta (26107)*, Menominee (26109), Midland (26111)*, Monroe (26115), Montcalm (26117)*, Montmorency (26119)*, Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Oakland (26125)*, Oceana (26127)*, Ogemaw (26129)*, Osceola (26133)*, Oscoda (26135), Otsego (26137)*, Ottawa (26139)*, Presque Isle (26141)*, Saginaw (26145), Sanilac (26151), Shiawassee (26155)*, St. Clair (26147), St. Joseph (26149)*, Tuscola (26157)*, Van Buren (26159)*, Washtenaw (26161)*, Wayne (26163)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Benton (27009), Big Stone (27011), Brown (27015), Carlton (27017), Cass (27021), Chippewa (27023), Chisago (27025), Clay (27027), Clearwater (27029), Crow Wing (27035), Dakota (27037), Dodge (27039), Douglas (27041), Faribault (27043), Fillmore (27045), Goodhue (27049), Grant (27051), Hubbard (27057), Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Kanabec (27065), Kittson (27069), Koochiching (27071), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lake (27075), Lake of the Woods (27077), Lyon (27083), Mahnomen (27087), Meeker (27093), Mille Lacs (27095), Morrison (27097), Mower (27099), Norman (27107)*, Olmsted (27109), Otter Tail (27111), Pennington (27113), Pine (27115), Pipestone (27117), Polk (27119), Pope (27121), Red Lake (27125), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rice (27131), Rock (27133), Roseau (27135), Sherburne (27141), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145), Steele (27147), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151), Todd (27153), Wadena (27159), Watonwan (27165), Wilkin (27167), Wright (27171), Yellow Medicine (27173)
OH Allen (39003), Ashland (39005), Ashtabula (39007), Columbiana (39029), Coshocton (39031), Darke (39037), Fairfield (39045), Geauga (39055), Greene (39057), Hancock (39063), Hardin (39065), Henry (39069), Holmes (39075), Huron (39077), Logan (39091), Lorain (39093), Lucas (39095), Madison (39097), Miami (39109), Morrow (39117), Muskingum (39119), Noble (39121), Pike (39131), Portage (39133), Putnam (39137), Trumbull (39155), Union (39159), Wayne (39169), Williams (39171), Wood (39173), Wyandot (39175)
PA Butler (42019), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Lawrence (42073), McKean (42083), Mercer (42085), Venango (42121), Warren (42123), Washington (42125)
SD Brookings (46011), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Hamlin (46057), Minnehaha (46099), Moody (46101), Roberts (46109)
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Essex (50009), Lamoille (50015)*, Rutland (50021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Brule (04030106)+, Michigamme (04030107)+*, Menominee (04030108)+, Cedar-Ford (04030109)+*, Escanaba (04030110)+*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+*, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Manistee (04060103)+*, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+*, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+*, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+*, St. Marys (04070001)+*, Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003)+*, Cheboygan (04070004)+*, Black (04070005)+*, Thunder Bay (04070006)+*, Au Sable (04070007)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+*, Pine (04080202)+, Shiawassee (04080203)+*, Flint (04080204)+*, Cass (04080205)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+*, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Tiffin (04100006)+*, Auglaize (04100007)+, Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+*, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104)+*, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Licking (05100101)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Redeye (07010107)+, Long Prairie (07010108)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, Rum (07010207)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Root (07040008)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, South Skunk (07080105)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, Winnebago (07080203)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+
09 Otter Tail (09020103)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Elm-Marsh (09020107)+*, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Sandhill-Wilson (09020301)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Glochidial hosts include: Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque, 1820) black bullhead (McGill et al., 2002); Ameiurus natalis (Lesueur, 1819) yellow bullhead (McGill et al., 2002); Cottus cognatus Richardson, 1836 slimy sculpin (Hove et al., 1995); Culaea inconstans (Kirtland, 1841) brook stickleback (McGill et al., 2002); Cyprinella spiloptera (Cope, 1868) spotfin shiner (Hove et al., 1995; McGill et al., 2002); Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur, 1818) gizzard shad (McGill et al., 2002); Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs, 1929 brassy minnow (McGill et al., 2002); Lepisopsteus platostomus Rafinesque, 1820 shortnose gar (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque, 1819 green sunfish (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis humilis (Girard, 1858) orange-spotted sunfish (McGill et al., 2002); Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 bluegill (McGill et al., 2002); Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, 1802 smallmouth bass (McGill et al., 2002); Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, 1818 emerald shiner (McGill et al., 2002); Notropis volucellus (Cope, 1865) mimic shiner (McGill et al., 2002); Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814) yellow perch (Hove et al., 1995); Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 guppy (Tompa, 1979); Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur, 1829) black crappie (Hove et al., 1995; McGill et al., 2002); Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque, 1818) flathead catfish (McGill et al., 2002); Rhinichthys cataractae (Valenciennes, 1842) longnose dace (McGill et al., 2002); Rhinichthys spp. (McGill et al., 2002); Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill, 1818) creek chub (McGill et al., 2002)
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species occurs principally in rivers and streams of various sizes, even in very small creeks and is rare in lakes. It is found on substrates of gravel, sand, or mud (Clarke, 1981).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Jun2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Athearn, H.D. 1992. New records for some species of Alasmidontini. Malacology Data Net, 3(1-4): 90-91.

  • Baker, F. C. 1928.  The fresh water mollusca of Wisconsin:  part II: Pelecypoda.  Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin No. 70, Part II.  University of Wisconsin, Madison.  495 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., C. Gatenby, R. Heisler, E. Plummer, K. Stramer, and W. Ostlie. 1995. A survey of the mussels of the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa rivers, Minnesota, 1990. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 131 pp.

  • Bright, R. C., E. Plummer, and D. Olson. 1988. A survey of the mussels of the Zumbro River drainage, southeastern Minnesota. Report submitted to Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 27 pp. + tables, figures, and appendices.

  • Bright, R. C., R. Heisler, S. Breidenbach, and D. Rocha. 1994. Survey of the mussels of the Camp Ripley portions of the Mississippi and Crow Wing rivers, Minnesota: the data. Report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Unpaged.

  • Bright, R. C., T. Atkinson, and C. Gatenby. 1994. Survey of the mussels of the Otter Tail and Pelican rivers, Minnesota: the data. Report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 191 pp.

  • Burch, J.B. 1975a. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.

  • Cicerello, R.R. and G.A. Schuster. 2003. A guide to the freshwater mussels of Kentucky. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 7:1-62.

  • Clarke, A. H. 1985. The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), Part II: Lasmigona and Simpsonais. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 399. 75 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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