Lasiurus cinereus - (Beauvois, 1796)
Hoary Bat
Other English Common Names: hoary bat
Other Common Names: Morcego
Synonym(s): Aeorestes cinereus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1796)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois, 1796) (TSN 180017)
French Common Names: chauve-souris cendrée
Spanish Common Names: Murciélago Escarchado
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106446
Element Code: AMACC05030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Lasiurus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lasiurus cinereus
Taxonomic Comments: Placed in the genus Aeorestes by Baird et al. (2015, 2017) and Morgan et al. (2019), but there is some disagreement about this arrangement (see Ziegler et al. 2016 and Novaes et al. 2018). New World Lasiurus were placed in the genus Nycteris by Hall (1981); few if any other authors have followed this change (see Jones et al. 1992; Koopman, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). See Baker et al. (1988) for a genetic analysis and information on relationship to other Lasiurus. Subspecies semotus of Hawaii formerly was regarded by some authors as a distinct species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 17Mar2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Large range from North America to South America; high availability of roost sites (primarily in trees), but roosts support only solitary individuals or single females with young, so roost site abundance does not necessarily imply large population size; habitat availability has been reduced through deforestation, but much habitat remains (species uses managed forest landscapes and sometimes urbanized areas with large trees, as well as more natural habitats); overall population size is probably still large, but abundance may be declining at a high rate, due to high level of mortality of primarily migrating individuals (estimated at tens of thousands annually) caused by turbines at wind energy facilities; this threat is expected to greaty increase in the near future; reproductive rate of this species is relatively low, and its ability to sustain the current and anticipated level of wind-energy impact is doubtful. The rank of G3G4 reflects the uncertain level of population impact of wind-energy fatalities, as well as the poorly known population size and trend in South America.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,NUM (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (S4), Arkansas (S3), California (S4), Colorado (S3S4B), Connecticut (S3), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SU), Georgia (S4), Hawaii (SNR), Idaho (S3), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S4B), Kentucky (S3S4M), Louisiana (S4), Maine (SU), Maryland (S5N), Massachusetts (S2), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S2?), Missouri (S4), Montana (S3), Navajo Nation (S4), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S3N), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (SU), New Mexico (S4), New York (S3S4B), North Carolina (S3S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S3), Oregon (S3), Pennsylvania (S4B), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Utah (S4B), Vermont (S3B), Virginia (SUB,S3N), Washington (S3S4), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S3), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (S3B), British Columbia (S4S5), Manitoba (S3B), New Brunswick (SUB,S2?M), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (SUB,S1M), Nunavut (S5B,SNRM), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (SUB)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Subspecies semotus of Hawaii is listed by USFWS as Endangered.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses most of North America, from southeast Alaska (Blejwas et al. 2014), British Columbia, southeastern Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, southern Quebec, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland south through Mexico to Guatemala; also South America (Colombia and Venezuela to central Chile, Uruguay, and central Argentina), Hawaii, Galapagos, Bermuda, and (accidently) other islands (Hall 1981, Shump and Shump 1982, Cryan 2003, Wilson and Reeder 2005, Henderson et al. 2009). This species is rare or absent in most of the southeastern United States and in deserts of the U.S. Southwest. It is the only nonmarine mammalian species native to Hawaii (subspecies semotus). In summer, hoary bats are uncommon in southeastern North America east of the Mississippi River and south of the Ohio River (Cryan 2003). In North America, populations in the east are dominated by females, whereas males are more common in the mountainous regions of the west (Findley and Jones 1964). In the United States, adult females bear young in the northeastern, midwestern, and prairie states, and in small numbers south to Arkansas (Perry and Thill 2007), Louisiana, and Tennessee. Summer residents in central and eastern Oklahoma are dominated by females (Tyler and Scott 1982). Females are rare in California and the coastal Pacific Northwest in summer (Cryan 2003). Adults of both sexes occur during summer in the Black Hills and surrounding areas of the Great Plains (Cryan 2003). Wintering areas for northern breeders include the southeastern United States, western California, and Mexico (mainly males) (Cryan 2003), but some individuals remain as far north as the Great Lakes region and southern New England in winter. Elevational range in North America extends to at least 2,775 meters.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized/meaningful criteria, but this species is represented by a widely distributed and large number of collection and observation sites and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown (Carter et al. 2003) but presumably exceeds 100,000. This species is seasonally locally common in western and central North America, generally uncommon in the east. It is basically solitary and does not form substantial aggregations, though groupings may occur during migration (Mumford 1963, Findley and Jones 1964, Valdez and Cryan 2009).

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Over the long term, deforestation has reduced the available habitat for this species (e.g., Morrell et al. 1999, Whitaker et al. 2006). However, much suitable forest habitat remains, and hoary bats do not require pristine habitat (e.g., they may inhabit managed forests and sometimes also semi-urban areas that have ample large trees).

This is the bat species most commonly killed by turbines at wind energy facilities (Gruver 2003, Johnson et al. 2003, Fiedler 2004, Johnson 2005, Kunz et al. 2007, Arnett et al. 2008, Cryan 2011, Ellison 2012, Valdez and Cryan 2013). Fatalities at certain wind energy facilities may exceed 1,000 hoary bats per year (Arnett et al. 2008, Cryan 2011). Arnett and Baerwald (2013) estimated that about 247,000-634,000 hoary bats were killed at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada during the period from 2000 to 2011 (38 percent of total bat fatalities). Available evidence indicates that wind turbines kill bats from various distant locations (i.e., from a broad area) rather than from localized subpopulations (Cryan et al. 2014). Wind energy is expected to expand from 61,000 MW in 2014 to 350,000 MW by 2030, so the cumulative impact from wind turbines on this species could be devastating. Although the size of the overall hoary bat population is unknown, the reproductive rate for this species is relatively low, and its ability to sustain the current and anticipated level of impact is doubtful,

Broadcast application of pesticides to combat forest/tree insect pests potentially has a detrimental impact on this species and its food resources; range-wide population impact is uncertain.

This species is not known to be impacted by white-nose syndrome (a cold-loving fungus that afflicts bats hibernating in caves and mines). This species may have a relatively high incidence of rabies (Whitaker and Douglas 2006), but the population impact of this disease is unknown.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but abundance presumably declined to an uncertain degree.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Based on historical deforestation and recent fatalities at wind energy facilities, area of occupancy and population size probably have declined significantly over the long term, but the degree of decline is uncertain.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses most of North America, from southeast Alaska (Blejwas et al. 2014), British Columbia, southeastern Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, southern Quebec, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland south through Mexico to Guatemala; also South America (Colombia and Venezuela to central Chile, Uruguay, and central Argentina), Hawaii, Galapagos, Bermuda, and (accidently) other islands (Hall 1981, Shump and Shump 1982, Cryan 2003, Wilson and Reeder 2005, Henderson et al. 2009). This species is rare or absent in most of the southeastern United States and in deserts of the U.S. Southwest. It is the only nonmarine mammalian species native to Hawaii (subspecies semotus). In summer, hoary bats are uncommon in southeastern North America east of the Mississippi River and south of the Ohio River (Cryan 2003). In North America, populations in the east are dominated by females, whereas males are more common in the mountainous regions of the west (Findley and Jones 1964). In the United States, adult females bear young in the northeastern, midwestern, and prairie states, and in small numbers south to Arkansas (Perry and Thill 2007), Louisiana, and Tennessee. Summer residents in central and eastern Oklahoma are dominated by females (Tyler and Scott 1982). Females are rare in California and the coastal Pacific Northwest in summer (Cryan 2003). Adults of both sexes occur during summer in the Black Hills and surrounding areas of the Great Plains (Cryan 2003). Wintering areas for northern breeders include the southeastern United States, western California, and Mexico (mainly males) (Cryan 2003), but some individuals remain as far north as the Great Lakes region and southern New England in winter. Elevational range in North America extends to at least 2,775 meters.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Ceballos, 2001; NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), Graham (04009), Greenlee (04011), La Paz (04012), Maricopa (04013), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021), Santa Cruz (04023), Yavapai (04025)
CA Alameda (06001)*, Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009), Colusa (06011), Contra Costa (06013), Del Norte (06015)*, El Dorado (06017)*, Fresno (06019), Glenn (06021), Humboldt (06023), Imperial (06025), Inyo (06027), Kern (06029), Kings (06031), Lake (06033), Lassen (06035), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039)*, Marin (06041)*, Mariposa (06043), Mendocino (06045), Merced (06047), Mono (06051), Monterey (06053)*, Orange (06059), Riverside (06065)*, Sacramento (06067), San Benito (06069), San Bernardino (06071)*, San Diego (06073), San Francisco (06075), San Luis Obispo (06079)*, San Mateo (06081), Santa Barbara (06083), Santa Clara (06085), Santa Cruz (06087)*, Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Solano (06095)*, Sonoma (06097)*, Stanislaus (06099), Sutter (06101), Tehama (06103), Trinity (06105), Tulare (06107)*, Tuolumne (06109), Ventura (06111)*, Yolo (06113), Yuba (06115)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009), New London (09011), Tolland (09013), Windham (09015)
FL Marion (12083)*, Orange (12095)*
HI Hawaii (15001), Honolulu (15003), Kauai (15007), Maui (15009)
IA Buena Vista (19021)*, Lucas (19117)*, Wayne (19185)*
ID Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bonner (16017), Cassia (16031), Fremont (16043), Lemhi (16059), Owyhee (16073), Valley (16085)
IN Bartholomew (18005), Benton (18007), Brown (18013), Daviess (18027), Greene (18055), Lake (18089), Monroe (18105), Morgan (18109), Porter (18127)
MA Barnstable (25001)*, Dukes (25007)*, Hampshire (25015)*, Norfolk (25021)*, Plymouth (25023)*, Worcester (25027)*
MS Hinds (28049), Leflore (28083)*, Perry (28111), Tallahatchie (28135)*, Tishomingo (28141)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Big Horn (30003), Blaine (30005), Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009), Carter (30011), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Custer (30017), Daniels (30019), Dawson (30021), Deer Lodge (30023), Fallon (30025), Fergus (30027), Flathead (30029), Gallatin (30031), Garfield (30033), Glacier (30035), Golden Valley (30037), Granite (30039), Hill (30041), Jefferson (30043), Judith Basin (30045), Lake (30047), Lewis and Clark (30049), Liberty (30051), Lincoln (30053), Madison (30057), McCone (30055), Meagher (30059), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Musselshell (30065), Park (30067), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Pondera (30073), Powder River (30075), Powell (30077), Prairie (30079), Ravalli (30081), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Rosebud (30087), Sanders (30089), Sheridan (30091), Silver Bow (30093), Stillwater (30095), Sweet Grass (30097), Teton (30099), Toole (30101), Treasure (30103), Valley (30105), Wheatland (30107), Wibaux (30109), Yellowstone (30111)
NC Macon (37113)
NE Banner (31007), Boyd (31015), Brown (31017), Cass (31025), Cherry (31031), Dawes (31045), Dixon (31051), Hamilton (31081), Hitchcock (31087), Keya Paha (31103), Kimball (31105), Knox (31107), Lancaster (31109), Merrick (31121), Morrill (31123), Red Willow (31145), Sarpy (31153), Scotts Bluff (31157), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165)
NV Churchill (32001), Clark (32003), Douglas (32005), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Humboldt (32013), Lander (32015), Lincoln (32017), Mineral (32021)*, Nye (32023), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
SC Aiken (45003), Charleston (45019)*, Edgefield (45037), Pickens (45077)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Middle Connecticut (01080201)+*, Chicopee (01080204)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Charles (01090001)+*, Cape Cod (01090002)+*, Blackstone (01090003)+*, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Shetucket (01100002)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Lower Hudson (02030101)+
03 Saluda (03050109)+, Cooper (03050201)+*, South Fork Edisto (03050204)+, Bulls Bay (03050209)+*, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Stevens (03060107)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+*, Oklawaha (03080102)+*, Black (03170007)+, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+
05 Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Driftwood (05120204)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+
06 Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Bear (06030006)+
07 North Raccoon (07100006)+*, Chicago (07120003)+
08 Tallahatchie (08030202)+*, Yalobusha (08030205)+*
09 Belly (09040002)+*
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Beaverhead (10020002)+, Ruby (10020003)+, Big Hole (10020004)+, Jefferson (10020005)+, Boulder (10020006)+, Madison (10020007)+, Gallatin (10020008)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Smith (10030103)+, Sun (10030104)+, Belt (10030105)+, Two Medicine (10030201)+, Cut Bank (10030202)+, Marias (10030203)+, Willow (10030204)+, Teton (10030205)+, Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Arrow (10040102)+, Judith (10040103)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Big Dry (10040105)+, Upper Musselshell (10040201)+, Middle Musselshell (10040202)+, Flatwillow (10040203)+, Box Elder (10040204)+, Lower Musselshell (10040205)+, Milk Headwaters (10050001)+, Upper Milk (10050002)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Big Sandy (10050005)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Cottonwood (10050010)+, Whitewater (10050011)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Rock (10050015)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Poplar (10060003)+, West Fork Poplar (10060004)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Brush Lake closed basin (10060007)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Upper Yellowstone (10070002)+, Shields (10070003)+, Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+, Stillwater (10070005)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007)+, Pryor (10070008)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Lower Tongue (10090102)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Lower Powder (10090209)+, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+, Big Porcupine (10100002)+, Rosebud (10100003)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, O'fallon (10100005)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Boxelder (10110202)+, Beaver (10110204)+, Lance (10120104)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Hat (10120108)+*, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Ponca (10150001)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+*, Maple (10230005)+*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Boyer (10230007)+*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Upper Republican (10250004)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+*
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+, Grand Wash (15010006)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+, Silver (15020005)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Bill Williams (15030204)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Lower Santa Cruz (15050303)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Tonto (15060105)+, Lower Salt (15060106)+, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+, Lower Verde (15060203)+, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+, San Cristobal Wash (15070203)+, Rio Sonoyta (15080102)+, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, Upper Quinn (16040201)+, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+, Massacre Lake (16040204)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Upper Carson (16050201)+, Carson Desert (16050203)+*, East Walker (16050301)+*, West Walker (16050302)+, Dixie Valley (16060001)+, Gabbs Valley (16060002)+, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Dry Lake Valley (16060009)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+*, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101)+, Fisher (17010102)+, Yaak (17010103)+, Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Upper Clark Fork (17010201)+, Flint-Rock (17010202)+, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, North Fork Flathead (17010206)+, Flathead Lake (17010208)+, South Fork Flathead (17010209)+, Stillwater (17010210)+, Swan (17010211)+, Lower Flathead (17010212)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+*, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Salt (17040105)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Goose (17040211)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Illinois (17100311)+*, Warner Lakes (17120007)+*
18 Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Middle Fork Eel (18010104)+, Lower Eel (18010105)+*, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+*, Gualala-Salmon (18010109)+*, Russian (18010110)+*, South Fork Trinity (18010212)+, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)+, Upper Cache (18020116)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Upper Yuba (18020125)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Clear Creek-Sacramento River (18020154)+, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River (18020157)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Upper Putah (18020162)+, Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+, Upper Deer-Upper White (18030005)+*, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+*, Upper Dry (18030009)+*, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+*, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040002)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+*, Upper Chowchilla-Upper Fresno (18040007)+*, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Cosumnes (18040013)+*, Panoche-San Luis Reservoir (18040014)+, Suisun Bay (18050001)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, Coyote (18050003)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+*, San Francisco Coastal South (18050006)+, San Lorenzo-Soquel (18060001)+*, Pajaro (18060002)+*, Salinas (18060005)+, Central Coastal (18060006)+*, San Antonio (18060009)+, Santa Ynez (18060010)+, Alisal-Elkhorn Sloughs (18060011)+*, Carmel (18060012)+*, Santa Barbara Coastal (18060013)+, Ventura (18070101)+*, Santa Clara (18070102)+*, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+, Los Angeles (18070105)+, San Gabriel (18070106)+*, Santa Ana (18070203)+*, Newport Bay (18070204)+, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+, San Diego (18070304)+, Cottonwood-Tijuana (18070305)+, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Death Valley-Lower Amargosa (18090203)+*, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+*, Mojave (18090208)+*, Southern Mojave (18100100)+*, Carrizo Creek (18100202)+, Salton Sea (18100204)+
20 Hawaii (20010000)+, Maui (20020000)+, Kahoolawe (20030000)+, Lanai (20040000)+, Molokai (20050000)+, Oahu (20060000)+, Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Dorsum yellowish brown to mahogany brown, or mixed dark brownish and grayish, strongly frosted with white; venter whitish on belly, pale brown on chest, yellowish on throat; entire upper surface of interfemoral membrane is heavily furred; ears rimmed with black; length of head and body about 85 mm; adult total length 120-146 mm; forearm 46-55 mm; mass 25-35 g; greatest length of skull 17.0-18.7 mm; maxillary toothrow 5.3-6.5 mm; skull robust, rostrum broad and short, zygomatic arches widespread (Hall 1981, Shump and Shump 1982, Ingles 1965).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Larger than L. borealis and L. seminolus, in which adult total length is less than 120 mm. Upper surface of interfemoral membrane is furred to the tip (only the basal half is furred in L. intermedius and L. ega, both of which have 30 teeth (32 in L. cinereus) and are pale yellowish brown without white frosting).
Reproduction Comments: In North America, breeding begins in September and may extend through winter, with delayed fertilization. Litter size is 1-4 (average 2), with one litter per year born between mid-May and early July in most areas. Young are able to fly at 4-5 weeks; lactation continues for up to 7 weeks. Individuals become sexually mature in their first summer. Female sometimes carry young during feeding flights.
Ecology Comments: Basically solitary, except for mother-young association; however, during migration, groups of up to hundreds of individuals may form. Dispersed population allows little chance to obtain density figures.

Some mother-young groups often change roosts whereas others do not; movements generally are less than 100 m from the previous roost.

Important predators include various birds and snakes.

Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migration evidently takes place in waves, with large numbers passing through an area on a few nights in spring and/or fall (Layne 1978, Mumford 1963, Findley and Jones 1964). Females precede males during spring migration (Valdez and Cryan 2009). This species is basically a spring-fall migrant in Texas, though small numbers of males are present in summer, and some individuals may overwinter (Schmidly 1991, Ammerman et al. 2012).

Northward migration in spring appears to stem mainly from wintering areas in California and Mexico; in summer, adult males are distributed mainly in the western half of North America whereas females dominate samples from eastern North America (Cryan 2003). Individual hoary bats are capable of migrating in excess of 2,000 kilometers (Cryan et al. 2004). There is no indication of significant migrations between North America and South America (Morales and Bickham 1995, Cryan 2003).

Individuals may forage at considerable distances (2 kilometers or more) from diurnal roost sites.

Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): Aerial, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Aerial, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes primarily deciduous and coniferous forests and woodlands, including areas altered by humans. Foraging habitat includes various open areas, including spaces over water and along riparian corridors. Individuals may forage around lights in nonurban situations (Furlonger et al. 1987). Roost sites are usually in foliage of large deciduous or coniferous trees (e.g., Perry and Thill 2007), near the end of branches 3-19 meters above ground, with dense foliage above and open flying room below, often at the edge of a clearing and commonly in hedgerow trees. Sometimes these bats roost in rock crevices or other sites, rarely in caves. Individuals change roosts frequently and exhibit a low level of roost fidelity (Perry and Thill 2007). Solitary females with young roost among tree foliage; a female may use the same site for a few weeks (Perry and Thill 2007) and in successive years. In Saskatchewan, reproductive females roosted on the south (especially southeast) side of white spruce trees, where wind speed was reduced (Willis and Brigham 2005). Lactating females in Alberta selected roosts that offered shelter from wind and exposure to sunlight (Klug et al. 2012). Hibernating individuals have been found in various situations, such as on tree trunks, in a tree cavity, in a squirrel's nest, and in a clump of Spanish-moss.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes mainly moths and to a lesser extent other insects. Hoary bats feed during migration (Valdez and Cryan 2009, 2013).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Foraging may begin in early evening before it becomes too dark to see these bats (Layne 1978) or well after dark. Diurnal flight may occur during migration and in Hawaii (Fujioka and Gon 1988). Feeding activity peaks 4-5 hours after sunset, with a secondary peak several hours before dawn. In the north, some hoary bats may hibernate rather than migrate (Whitaker 1980). Individuals may become torpid during periods of cold weather (Cryan and Wolf 2003, Willis et al. 2006).
Length: 15 centimeters
Weight: 35 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Monitoring Requirements: See Hart et al. (1993) for information on a remote monitoring technique that was used in Pennsylvania; equipment consisted of a frequency-tunable bat detector, a voice-activated microcasette tape recorder, and a talking clock. See Hickey (1992, J. Mamm. 73:344-346) for information on the effect of radio transmitters on foraging behavior (no effect detected).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small and Medium Bats

Use Class: Bachelor colony
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of males during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In two studies, male MYOTIS SODALIS foraged a maximum of 2.0 and 4.2 kilometers from their summer roosts (summarized in USFWS 1999).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring breeding population during spring/summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.
Date: 02Jul2014
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Hibernaculum
Subtype(s): Pre-hibernation roost site, Hibernaculum
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of hibernating individuals. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. EO also includes immediately surrounding areas used by bats immediately before hibernation, where these areas are known.
Mapping Guidance: Cave/mine passages should be projected to the surface for the purpose of mapping EO boundary.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: These bats sometimes move long distances between different hibernacula. For example, individuals of M. LUCIFUGUS and M. SEPTENTRIONALIS have been recorded flying up to 219 and 89 kilometers respectively between hibernacula during the winter months (Linzey 1998, Griffin 1940). However,
such movements are not a good basis for distinguishing occurrences (occurrences would become too expansive). The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate hibernacula.

Separation distances suggested take into account the fact that, during the fall, some bats (e.g. M. SODALIS) swarm and mate at their hibernaculum, and males roost in trees nearby during the day and fly to the cave during the night. In two studies, M. SODALIS males roosted within a maximum of 5.6 kilometers of the hibernaculum (Kiser and Elliott 1996; Craig Stihler, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999).

Although they do not generally fly from one hibernaculum to another, hibernating bats are known to wake and move around to some extent within their hibernating site. As long as the areas are connected (even though they may not be passable by humans) the bats could be expected to move from one part of the system to another (e.g. MYOTIS SODALIS, Clawson et al. 1980).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Maternity colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of breeding females and their young during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained during the summer months even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: The EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.

Nursing female Myotis sodalis moved an average of 1.04 kilometers from roost to center of foraging area, giving a mean foraging diameter of 2.08 kilometers; however, post-lactating females moved more than twice as far, travelling an average of 2.6 kilometers (Garner and Gardner 1992). In Indiana, 11 foraging adult females that were tracked for 2-7 days moved up to 8.4 km from their roost; home range during this brief period averaged 3.35 square kilometers (Sparks et al. 2005). Myotis grisescens females move up to 6.6 kilometers (Tuttle 1976). Female M. septentrionalis had an average foraging home range of 61.1 hectares (Menzel et al. 1999), equivalent to a circle with a diameter of 880 meters.

Date: 08Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of migrating or otherwise nonhibernating individuals during the nonbreeding season. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In California, Fellers and Pierson (2002) studied a group of Corynorhinus townsendii inhabiting a maternity colony site after the nursery season had passed and found that the mean center of female foraging activity was 3.2 kilometers from the diurnal roost, whereas the mean center of male foraging activity was only 1.3 kilometers from the roost. No bats traveled more than 10.5 kilometers from the roost, and individuals showed considerable loyalty to the primary roost. Otherwise, little movement data are available.

Date: 19Apr2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population during summer  (approximately May through August). Includes counts of individuals from roost sites obtained during the summer months during pup rearing and summer residence periods. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals during roost counts.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and an approximation of the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites.
Date: 01Dec2017
Author: Staffen, R.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Jul2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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