Lasionycteris noctivagans - (Le Conte, 1831)
Silver-haired Bat
Other English Common Names: silver-haired bat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lasionycteris noctivagans (LeConte, 1831) (TSN 180014)
French Common Names: chauve-souris argentée
Spanish Common Names: Un Murciélago
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104362
Element Code: AMACC02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Lasionycteris
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lasionycteris noctivagans
Taxonomic Comments: No subspecies are recognized.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 17Mar2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Large range in North America; presumably large population size; specific population trend uncertain but presumably declining; negatively affected by deforestation and forest management practices that reduce roost site (e.g., snag) availability and habitat quality (e.g., forest structure and composition); commonly killed by turbines at wind energy facilities, and this threat is greatly increasing; reproductive rate of this species is low, and its ability to sustain the current and anticipated level of wind-energy impact is doubtful.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4 (15Aug2018)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,NUN,NUM (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Alaska (S2), Arizona (S3S4), Arkansas (S3N), California (S3S4), Colorado (S3S4), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SU), District of Columbia (S4N), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S3), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (SNRN), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (S4S5M), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SU), Maryland (S5N), Massachusetts (S2), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S3), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S3), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S3B), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (SU), New Mexico (S4), New York (S2S3B), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S2), Oregon (S3S4), Pennsylvania (SUB), Rhode Island (SU), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S4), Tennessee (S4S5), Texas (S4), Utah (S4B), Vermont (S2B), Virginia (SUB,S4N), Washington (S3S4), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S3), Wyoming (S3B)
Canada Alberta (S3S4B), British Columbia (S4S5), Manitoba (S3S4B), New Brunswick (SUB,S1?M), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (SUB,S1M), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from southeastern Alaska (Blejwas et al. 2014) and southern Canada south of the Northwest Territories southward to California, Arizona, Texas, northern Mexico, and Georgia (Yates et al. 1976, Hall 1981, Kunz 1982). The species is known also from Bermuda. These bats are generally absent in the southeastern United States during summer (June- August; Cryan 2003). In Texas, they appear to be primarily spring and fall migrants, though males have been found in mountainous areas of western Texas in May-June (Ammerman et al. 2012). They winter in the Pacific Northwest, in scattered areas of the southwestern United States, and at middle latitudes of the eastern United States approximately south of Michigan and east of the Mississippi River (Izor 1979, Cryan 2003). Males seem to stay farther south in spring and summer than do females, except for populations in British Columbia that do not appear to migrate (Schowalter et al. 1978, Cryan 2003).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The specific number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized/meaningful criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of detection sites (e.g., roosts, mist net capture sites) and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000 based on the wide range. This bat is locally common though generally solitary. Roosting "colonies" are transient and include only small numbers of individuals (usually fewer than 20).

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This is one of the bat species most commonly killed by turbines at wind energy facilities (Gruver 2002; Johnson et al. 2003; Fiedler 2004; Johnson 2005; Baerwald and Barclay 2009, 2011; Arnett et al. 2008; Cryan 2011; Cryan et al. 2012; Ellison 2012; Jameson and Willis 2012). Arnett and Baerwald (2013) estimated that about 149,000-308,000 silver-haired bats were killed at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada during the period from 2000 to 2011 (18 percent of total bat fatalities). Wind energy is expected to expand from 61,000 MW in 2014 to 350,000 MW by 2030, so the cumulative impact from wind turbines on this species could be devastating. Although the size of the overall silver-haired bat population is unknown, the reproductive rate for this species is low, and its ability to sustain the current and anticipated level of impact is doubtful.

Locally, the species experiences habitat loss and fragmentation as a result of clearcutting and other causes of deforestation (Parker 1996, Parker et al. 1996). Over the long term, deforestation and forest management practices presumably have reduced habitat quality (Campbell et al. 1996) and the number of available roost sites (Kunz 1982).

Broadcast application of pesticides to combat forest insect pests potentially has a detrimental impact on bat food resources (M. Perkins, Western Bat Working Group 2005), if not on the bats themselves, but the population-level impact of pesticides and other contaminants is poorly known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but abundance probably has declined.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is unknown, but area of occupancy and population size presumably have declined (degree of decline is uncertain) in conjunction with historical deforestation, consequent change in forest structure and composition, and recent fatalities at wind energy facilities.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Immediate implementation of impact reduction strategies at all wind energy facilities within the range of L. noctivagans is needed.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from southeastern Alaska (Blejwas et al. 2014) and southern Canada south of the Northwest Territories southward to California, Arizona, Texas, northern Mexico, and Georgia (Yates et al. 1976, Hall 1981, Kunz 1982). The species is known also from Bermuda. These bats are generally absent in the southeastern United States during summer (June- August; Cryan 2003). In Texas, they appear to be primarily spring and fall migrants, though males have been found in mountainous areas of western Texas in May-June (Ammerman et al. 2012). They winter in the Pacific Northwest, in scattered areas of the southwestern United States, and at middle latitudes of the eastern United States approximately south of Michigan and east of the Mississippi River (Izor 1979, Cryan 2003). Males seem to stay farther south in spring and summer than do females, except for populations in British Columbia that do not appear to migrate (Schowalter et al. 1978, Cryan 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Natureserve, 2005; Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Juneau (02110)*, Ketchikan Gateway (02130), Wrangell-Petersburg (CA) (02280)
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), Greenlee (04011), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021)
CA Alameda (06001)*, Alpine (06003)*, Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009)*, Colusa (06011)*, Contra Costa (06013)*, Del Norte (06015), El Dorado (06017), Glenn (06021), Humboldt (06023), Inyo (06027), Lake (06033)*, Lassen (06035), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039), Marin (06041)*, Mariposa (06043), Modoc (06049)*, Mono (06051), Nevada (06057)*, Plumas (06063), Sacramento (06067), San Bernardino (06071), San Diego (06073)*, Santa Barbara (06083), Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Stanislaus (06099), Tehama (06103), Trinity (06105), Tuolumne (06109), Yolo (06113)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Butte (16023), Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Lemhi (16059), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Valley (16085)
IN Hamilton (18057), Warren (18171)
LA Avoyelles (22009), Catahoula (22025), La Salle (22059), Lincoln (22061)*, Rapides (22079), Vernon (22115), Winn (22127)*
MO Adair (29001), Atchison (29005), Boone (29019), Butler (29023), Camden (29029)*, Cape Girardeau (29031), Carter (29035), Cooper (29053), Crawford (29055), DeKalb (29063), Holt (29087), Howell (29091), Lincoln (29113), Madison (29123), Nodaway (29147), Oregon (29149), Ozark (29153), Pulaski (29169), Putnam (29171), Reynolds (29179), Ripley (29181), Schuyler (29197), Shannon (29203), St. Louis (29189), Ste. Genevieve (29186), Sullivan (29211), Taney (29213), Texas (29215), Washington (29221), Wayne (29223), Webster (29225)
NE Banner (31007), Buffalo (31019), Chase (31029), Cheyenne (31033), Dawes (31045), Hitchcock (31087), Kimball (31105), Knox (31107), Lancaster (31109), Morrill (31123), Sarpy (31153), Scotts Bluff (31157), Sheridan (31161), Sherman (31163), Sioux (31165)
NV Carson City (32510), Churchill (32001), Clark (32003)*, Douglas (32005)*, Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Eureka (32011), Humboldt (32013), Lincoln (32017), Mineral (32021), Nye (32023), Pershing (32027), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
OH Hocking (39073)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Berks (42011)*, Blair (42013), Elk (42047), Forest (42053), Greene (42059), Indiana (42063), Jefferson (42065)*, McKean (42083), Philadelphia (42101)*, Somerset (42111)*, Tioga (42117), Warren (42123), Wayne (42127)*
SC Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073)
SD Bon Homme (46009), Brookings (46011), Brown (46013), Brule (46015), Charles Mix (46023), Clay (46027), Custer (46033), Day (46037), Fall River (46047), Gregory (46053), Hand (46059), Harding (46063)*, Hughes (46065), Jackson (46071), Lawrence (46081), Lyman (46085), Marshall (46091), Meade (46093), Minnehaha (46099), Pennington (46103), Perkins (46105), Shannon (46113), Stanley (46117), Union (46127), Walworth (46129)
TN Polk (47139)
VT Rutland (50021), Windsor (50027)
WV Cabell (54011), Grant (54023), Greenbrier (54025), Monroe (54063)*, Pendleton (54071), Pocahontas (54075), Randolph (54083), Tucker (54093), Wayne (54099)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+
02 Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+*, Tioga (02050104)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+
03 Saluda (03050109)+, Seneca (03060101)+
04 Otter Creek (04150402)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Conemaugh (05010007)+, Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Gauley (05050005)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Lower Guyandotte (05070102)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Twelvepole (05090102)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Upper White (05120201)+
06 Ocoee (06020003)+
07 North Fabius (07110002)+, South Fabius (07110003)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower Red (08040301)+, Castor (08040302)+*, Dugdemona (08040303)+*, Little (08040304)+, Whisky Chitto (08080204)+
10 Madison (10020007)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Hat (10120108)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, West Missouri Coteau (10130106)+, Grand (10130303)+, Upper Moreau (10130305)+*, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Bad (10140102)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Middle White (10140202)+, Lower White (10140204)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Upper James (10160003)+, Turtle (10160009)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Vermillion (10170102)+, Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Lower Lodgepole (10190016)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Wood (10200102)+, Salt (10200203)+, Mud (10210005)+, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Nishnabotna (10240004)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Platte (10240012)+, One Hundred and Two (10240013)+, Upper Republican (10250004)+, Frenchman (10250005)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Niangua (10290110)+*, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+, Big Piney (10290202)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
11 James (11010002)+, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, North Fork White (11010006)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Eleven Point (11010011)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Chinle (14080204)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Grand Wash (15010006)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+*, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+*, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+*, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+, Silver (15020005)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+, Upper Gila-Mangas (15040002)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Lower Santa Cruz (15050303)+, Black (15060101)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Tonto (15060105)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+, Lower Verde (15060203)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, Little Humboldt (16040109)+, Lower Quinn (16040202)+, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+, Massacre Lake (16040204)+, Thousand-Virgin (16040205)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+*, Upper Carson (16050201)+*, Carson Desert (16050203)+*, East Walker (16050301)+*, West Walker (16050302)+, Walker (16050303)+*, Dixie Valley (16060001)+, Southern Big Smoky Valley (16060003)+, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+
17 Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Illinois (17100311)+*, Warner Lakes (17120007)+*, Guano (17120008)+*
18 Smith (18010101)+, Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Middle Fork Eel (18010104)+*, Shasta (18010207)+*, Scott (18010208)+*, Lower Klamath (18010209)+*, Trinity (18010211)+*, South Fork Trinity (18010212)+, Upper Pit (18020002)+*, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Mccloud (18020004)+*, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+*, Lower American (18020111)+, Upper Stony (18020115)+*, Upper Cache (18020116)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Upper Yuba (18020125)+*, South Fork American (18020129)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+*, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Clear Creek-Sacramento River (18020154)+, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River (18020157)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather (18020159)+, Upper Putah (18020162)+*, Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+*, Upper Cosumnes (18040013)+*, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+*, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+*, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+*, San Antonio (18060009)+, Santa Ynez (18060010)+, Santa Barbara Coastal (18060013)+, Santa Barbara Channel Islands (18060014)+*, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+*, Los Angeles (18070105)+, San Gabriel (18070106)+*, San Diego (18070304)+*, Surprise Valley (18080001)+*, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+*, Death Valley-Lower Amargosa (18090203)+*, Indian Wells-Searles Valleys (18090205)+, Mojave (18090208)+, Southern Mojave (18100100)+*
19 Ketchikan (19010102)+, Kuiu-Kupreanof-Mitkof-Etolin-Zarembo-Wrangell Isla (19010202)+, Taku River (19010304)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A medium-sized, silver-haired bat.
Reproduction Comments: Copulation occurs in late summer or early fall. Fertilization is delayed until spring. Gestation lasts 50-60 days. Litter of 2 (occasionally 1) young is born in June-July, sometimes later in north (Kunz 1982). Young are able to fly at about 3 weeks. Individuals of both sexes become sexually mature by late summer/early fall of their first year (Cryan et al. 2012). Lifespan appears to be relatively short (oldest individuals estimated to be 12 years old; Schowalter et al. 1978). Maternity colonies are small (Parsons et al. 1986), usually with fewer than 20 individuals but sometimes as many as 55 (in a tree in South Dakota; Mattson et al. 1996).
Ecology Comments: During migration and summer residency, females roost alone or in maternity colonies; males typically roost alone (Barclay et al. 1988, Mattson et al. 1996, Betts 1998).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: These bats generally are migratory. Over the major part of the range, they are found only during spring and fall migration. South-bound migration occurs primarily in August-September (Barclay 1984, Arnett et al. 2008). See Cryan (2003) for monthly distribution based on museum records.

At Long Point, Ontario (northern side of Lake Erie), McGuire et al. (2012) found that southward migration occurred in two waves (late August and mid-September). Most bats stayed 1-2 days, although two remained longer than 2 weeks. One third of the bats foraged while at the site, many foraging opportunistically on nights when rain precluded continued migration. Half of the bats departed across Lake Erie (minimum crossing distance about 38 km) while others departed along the shoreline. Simulations predicted a migration rate of about 250-275 km per day and suggested that all but one of the bats carried sufficient fuel stores to reach the putative wintering area in the southeastern United States (estimated distance 1,500 km) in 5-6 nights without further refuelling. Migrating bats appeared to stopover for sanctuary or short-term rest as opposed to extended rest and refuelling.

Migrants occur in waves in May and early June along southern shore of Lake Manitoba (Barclay et al. 1988).

Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): Aerial, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Habitat is primarily forested (frequently coniferous) areas adjacent to lakes, ponds, or streams, including areas that have been altered by humans. During migration, these bats sometimes occur in xeric areas. Summer roosts and nursery sites are in coniferous or deciduous tree foliage, cavities, or under loose bark, sometimes in buildings. In the Pacific Northwest and Black Hills (South Dakota), these bats show an affinity for forests that contain large numbers of snags (Campbell et al. 1996, Mattson et al. 1996, Betts 1998). In winter, individuals have been found in mines, caves, houses, rock crevices, under loose bark, and in hollow trees.

In Oregon, maternity roosts were in cavities high in tall, declining or newly dead trees; roost fidelity of reproductive females varied among individuals: some bats used only 1 or 2 roosts from 8 to at least 13 days; others used 5 or 6 roosts from 1 to 6 days; radio-tagged bats that were in the same colony stayed together during shifts among roosts; bats moved 35 to 1,100 meters between successive roosts (Betts 1998). In South Dakota, maternity aggregations primarily were in woodpecker-created cavities in ponderosa pines (Mattson et al. 1996).

At Long Point, Ontario, late summer/early fall migrants rats roosted in a variety of tree species and human-made structures in natural and developed (e.g., residential) areas (McGuire et al. 2012). In Manitoba, migrants roosted typically in narrow crevices in tree trunks (Barclay et al. 1988).

In the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, Perry et al. (2010) radio-tracked 11 bats to 31 day-roosts during winter. Ninety percent of roosts were in trees (5 species): 55 percent of all all roosts were under loose bark of the bole of live overstory Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine), three percent of roosts were in a rock outcrop, and six percent were at ground level (under a tree root or in a cavity at the base of a live pine). Bats selected pine or pine-hardwood stands greater than 50 years old and used forest stands 15-50 years of age less than their availability. Most roosts were on southern topographic aspects, and bats roosted in the rock outcrop on colder days (<5 °C).

See Vonhof and Barclay (1996) for information on characteristics of roost trees in British Columbia. See Campbell et al. (1996) for roost characteristics in Washington.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes a wide diversity of small to medium-size flying insects (e.g., Kunz 1982, Reimer et al. 2010) often captured over small water bodies within forested areas. Migrating individuals engage in feeding activity (Reimer et al. 2010).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Activity occurs throughout the year in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina; winter activity occurred on evenings when air temperature was 13 C or more (Padgett and Rose 1991). At low elevations in western Washington, foraging activity occurs in winter on rainless nights with mild temperatures (Falxa 2007).

Migrating bats fly only at night. Migrants in Manitoba emerged from roosts typically 30 minutes after sunset in spring (Barclay et al. 1988). Roosting migrants in Manitoba became torpid at air temperatures below 20 C (Barclay et al. 1988).

This species is similar to most insectivorous, temperate-zone bats in becoming torpid during periods of reduced prey availability and temperature; individuals may hibernate to maintain energy balance during winter (Dunbar 2007).

Length: 11 centimeters
Weight: 15 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: "Recruitment and retention of snags and the maintenance of structural complexity in upland as well as riparian areas are important...in managed forests" (Campbell et al. 1996).
Biological Research Needs: Better information is needed on basic habitat requirements, reproduction, demography, population size and trend, and on the population impact of mortality at wind energy facilities and other threats.

Although widely distributed, little information is available on migratory patterns. Further research into relationships between western and eastern groups may facilitate interpretation of seasonal movements (Cryan 2003).

"More information is needed distribution of breeding populations, on regional differences in roosting habitat requirements, the timing and patterns of migration for each sex throughout the west, and the location of possibly important mating and migratory stopover sites. Information is also needed on what factors (e.g., temperature, local food availability) determine year to year variation in local distribution and abundance." Source: M. Perkins, Western Bat Working Group species account, 2005).

Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small and Medium Bats

Use Class: Bachelor colony
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of males during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In two studies, male MYOTIS SODALIS foraged a maximum of 2.0 and 4.2 kilometers from their summer roosts (summarized in USFWS 1999).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring breeding population during spring/summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.
Date: 02Jul2014
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Hibernaculum
Subtype(s): Pre-hibernation roost site, Hibernaculum
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of hibernating individuals. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. EO also includes immediately surrounding areas used by bats immediately before hibernation, where these areas are known.
Mapping Guidance: Cave/mine passages should be projected to the surface for the purpose of mapping EO boundary.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: These bats sometimes move long distances between different hibernacula. For example, individuals of M. LUCIFUGUS and M. SEPTENTRIONALIS have been recorded flying up to 219 and 89 kilometers respectively between hibernacula during the winter months (Linzey 1998, Griffin 1940). However,
such movements are not a good basis for distinguishing occurrences (occurrences would become too expansive). The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate hibernacula.

Separation distances suggested take into account the fact that, during the fall, some bats (e.g. M. SODALIS) swarm and mate at their hibernaculum, and males roost in trees nearby during the day and fly to the cave during the night. In two studies, M. SODALIS males roosted within a maximum of 5.6 kilometers of the hibernaculum (Kiser and Elliott 1996; Craig Stihler, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999).

Although they do not generally fly from one hibernaculum to another, hibernating bats are known to wake and move around to some extent within their hibernating site. As long as the areas are connected (even though they may not be passable by humans) the bats could be expected to move from one part of the system to another (e.g. MYOTIS SODALIS, Clawson et al. 1980).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Maternity colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of breeding females and their young during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained during the summer months even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: The EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.

Nursing female Myotis sodalis moved an average of 1.04 kilometers from roost to center of foraging area, giving a mean foraging diameter of 2.08 kilometers; however, post-lactating females moved more than twice as far, travelling an average of 2.6 kilometers (Garner and Gardner 1992). In Indiana, 11 foraging adult females that were tracked for 2-7 days moved up to 8.4 km from their roost; home range during this brief period averaged 3.35 square kilometers (Sparks et al. 2005). Myotis grisescens females move up to 6.6 kilometers (Tuttle 1976). Female M. septentrionalis had an average foraging home range of 61.1 hectares (Menzel et al. 1999), equivalent to a circle with a diameter of 880 meters.

Date: 08Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of migrating or otherwise nonhibernating individuals during the nonbreeding season. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In California, Fellers and Pierson (2002) studied a group of Corynorhinus townsendii inhabiting a maternity colony site after the nursery season had passed and found that the mean center of female foraging activity was 3.2 kilometers from the diurnal roost, whereas the mean center of male foraging activity was only 1.3 kilometers from the roost. No bats traveled more than 10.5 kilometers from the roost, and individuals showed considerable loyalty to the primary roost. Otherwise, little movement data are available.

Date: 19Apr2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population during summer  (approximately May through August). Includes counts of individuals from roost sites obtained during the summer months during pup rearing and summer residence periods. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals during roost counts.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and an approximation of the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites.
Date: 01Dec2017
Author: Staffen, R.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Mar2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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