Leucophaeus pipixcan - Wagler, 1831
Franklin's Gull
Other Common Names: Gaivota-do-Frankin
Synonym(s): Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831 (TSN 176838)
French Common Names: mouette de Franklin
Spanish Common Names: Gaviota de Franklin, Gaviota Chica
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101670
Element Code: ABNNM03020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae Leucophaeus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Larus pipixcan
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in Larus but separated on the basis of genetic data (Pons et al., 2005) that indicate that the genus would be paraphyletic if the following species were included: L. modestus, L. atricilla and L. pipixcan (AOU, 2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 09Apr2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4B (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N5N,N4N5M (16Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Arizona (S3S4M), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (S4S5N), Florida (SNA), Idaho (S3B), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (S3B), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (S3B), Navajo Nation (S3M), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S3B), New Mexico (S3N), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S5N), Oregon (S2B), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Dakota (S5B), Texas (S2), Utah (S4B), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SHB)
Canada Alberta (S4B), British Columbia (S4N), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (S5B), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Northwest Territories (SUB), Ontario (SNA), Saskatchewan (S4B,S4M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: Canadian Prairie Provinces south to east-central Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, northwestern Wyoming, northeastern South Dakota, and northwestern Iowa. Nonbreeders occur in summer from east-central British Columbia and northeastern Manitoba south to northern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming, Kansas, central Iowa, and Great Lakes. NORTHERN WINTER: primarily along Pacific coast of South America (less commonly north to Guatemala), south to southern Chile, casually along Gulf coast of Texas and Louisiana, and in Hawaii, rarely in southern California; accidental in Puerto Rico.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: Canadian Prairie Provinces south to east-central Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, northwestern Wyoming, northeastern South Dakota, and northwestern Iowa. Nonbreeders occur in summer from east-central British Columbia and northeastern Manitoba south to northern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming, Kansas, central Iowa, and Great Lakes. NORTHERN WINTER: primarily along Pacific coast of South America (less commonly north to Guatemala), south to southern Chile, casually along Gulf coast of Texas and Louisiana, and in Hawaii, rarely in southern California; accidental in Puerto Rico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OH, OK, OR, PA, SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NF, NT, ON, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2004; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gem (16045), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Lemhi (16059), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083), Washington (16087)
MN Douglas (27041), Jackson (27063), Kandiyohi (27067)*, Marshall (27089), Nicollet (27103)*, Polk (27119), Todd (27153), Traverse (27155)*, Wilkin (27167)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Phillips (30071), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Teton (30099)
OR Harney (41025)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Sauk (07010202)+, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+*, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+*, Upper Red (09020104)+, Thief (09020304)+, Grand Marais-Red (09020306)+, Lower Red (09020311)+
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Teton (10030205)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Dry Fork Cheyenne (10120102)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Crow (10190009)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+*, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+, Silvies (17120002)+*, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+, Silver (17120004)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins in early May or early June (Harrison 1978). Both sexes incubate 2-3 eggs for about 18-20 days. Semi-precocial young are tended by both adults. Nests in colonies, which may include up to 15,000-20,000 individuals (Terres 1980).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Casual migrant off both coasts of U.S. (National Geographic Society 1983). Migration in Costa Rica October-November (Pacific coast) and more abundantly April-early June (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: seacoasts, bays, estuaries, lakes, rivers, marshes, ponds and irrigated fields (AOU 1983); mudflats. Nests in fresh-water marshes, shores of inland lakes, in areas of prairie and steppe. Nest is made of dead marsh plants; it is often a floating structure anchored to a living plant stem.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds primarily on insects. Catches insects while in flight; follows farmers' plows to feed on unearthed insects and their larvae; also eats aquatic insects and small fishes in small ponds and sloughs (Bent 1921).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 37 centimeters
Weight: 280 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Gulls and Terns

Use Class: Adult foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Applies to both adults and juveniles. Evidence of one or more individuals seeking food in suitable habitat. Evidence of prey capture is not a prerequisite, as importance of a given location for foraging may vary temporally with shifting prey.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Scientific basis for assigning foraging separation distances is weak because terns are widespread across the Massachusetts coast and highly mobile. Most gaps in foraging observations likely reflect lack of survey effort.
Date: 10Jan2017
Author: Mostello, C. S.

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting areas and associated nesting-season foraging areas (regardless of how far apart they are), but separation distance pertains to nesting areas (breeding colonies). Thus different breeding occurrences may overlap if birds from different nesting areas forage in the same area. Separation distance is not intended to delineate demographically independent populations or metapopulations (such units would be quite large). Instead, separation distance is a compromise between the high mobility of these birds (see following) and the need for occurrences that are of practical size for conservation/management use.

California Gulls foraged an average of 17.4 kilometers from colony (Baird 1976); maximum foraging distances ranged from 32 to 61 kilometers (Rothweiler 1960, Baird 1976). Ring-billed Gulls foraged an average of 11 km from colony (Baird 1977). Least Terns foraged up to 3-12 kilometers from nests (summarized in Thompson et al. 1997). Forster's Terns has a reported feeding radius of 3.2 kilometers (Van Rossem 1932). Black Terns foraged up to 10 kilometers from nests, over continuous suitable but unoccupied habitat (M. A. Stern, pers. comm. 1998). Caspian terns in a colony at the mouth of the Columbia River: 90% of adults foraged within 21 kilometers (Collis et al. 1999).

Date: 21Jul2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 50 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set such that occurrences are of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences are defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 26Apr2004

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Concentration Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set such that occurrences are of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences are defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 16Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Includes all inland-nesting gulls and terns, in the genera LARUS, STERNA, and CHLIDONIAS.

Use Class: Staging
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of flocks resting, roosting, and/or feeding young at a given location prior to breeding or after breeding has been completed. Staging may occur near the breeding site, preceding or following major migratory movements such as oceanic crossings, or it may occur after individuals have departed on migration, but before they have arrived at their final destination (a "stopover"). Staging may occur at sites also used for breeding, but often does not. Staging habitat may be ephemeral. For Common/Roseate Terns in Massachusetts, a minimum of 100 individuals in appropriate habitat is used.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: In Massachusetts, staging areas are separated somewhat arbitrarily, often by jurisdictional or property boundaries, as are nesting areas for coastal birds.
Date: 10Jan2017
Author: Mostello, C. S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • See SERO listing

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  • The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Banks, R.C., R.T. Chesser, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2008. Forty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 125(3):758-768.

  • Thompson, B. C., J. A. Jackson, J. Burger, L. A. Hill, E. M. Kirsch, and J. L. Atwood. 1997. Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The Birds of North America, No. 290. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32 pp.

  • Van Rossem, A. J. 1933. Terns as destroyers of birds' eggs. Condor 35:49-51.

  • Vorland, J. 1984. Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) breeding colonies and associated habitats in Minnesota, 1984. Progress Report submitted to the Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 21 pp.

  • Vorland, Jeanine. 1984. Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) Breeding Colonies and Associated Habitats in Minnesota, 1984. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in unpublished report.

  • Wood, MERRILL. 1979. BIRDS OF PENNSYLVANIA. PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV., UNIVERSITY PARK. 133 PP.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

  • de Almeida, A. N. F. 2003. First documented record of Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) in Brazil. Ararajuba 11:268-269.

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