Larus hyperboreus - Gunnerus, 1767
Glaucous Gull
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 (TSN 176808)
French Common Names: goéland bourgmestre
Spanish Common Names: Gaviota Blanca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101458
Element Code: ABNNM03200
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae Larus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Larus hyperboreus
Taxonomic Comments: Closely related to other species within the Larus californicus complex; this complex poses one of the most complicated problems in ornithological systematics today (AOU 1983). Hybridizes with L. argentatus and L. glaucescens (AOU 1998). Allozyme data indicate a very close overall genetic similarity among L. argentatus, L. cachinnans, L. fuscus, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, and L. marinus (Snell 1991a).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N5N,N5M (13Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRN), Alaska (S5B,S4N), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S2N), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (S1N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S1N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRN), Missouri (SNA), Nebraska (SNRN), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNRN), Oregon (SNA), Rhode Island (S2N), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (S2N), Texas (SNA), Utah (S1S2N), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNRM), Labrador (S3), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (S2N,S2M), Newfoundland Island (S5N,S5M), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nova Scotia (SNA), Nunavut (S4B,SUN,S4M), Ontario (S4N), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S2N,S2M), Yukon Territory (S3B,S4M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: arctic coasts, islands from northern Alaska east across northern Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Europe to eastern Siberia. WINTERS: from southern part of breeding range south to southern California and Virginia; occasional in Hawaii; in Old World, south to northern Europe and central Siberia.

Short-term Trend Comments: See Lensink (1984) for status in Alaska, Evans (1984) for status in northwestern Europe.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: arctic coasts, islands from northern Alaska east across northern Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Europe to eastern Siberia. WINTERS: from southern part of breeding range south to southern California and Virginia; occasional in Hawaii; in Old World, south to northern Europe and central Siberia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, RI, SC, SD, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI
Canada BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007), Bonner (16017), Canyon (16027), Gooding (16047), Kootenai (16055), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+
17 Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to early June (Harrison 1978); egg laying occurs mainly mid- to late June in Beaufort Sea area (Johnson and Herter 1989). Both sexes incubate 2-3 eggs for 27-28 days (Terres 1980). Hatching begins in second week of July in Beaufort Sea area. Semi-precocial young are tended by both parents, fledge at 45-50 days, may be accompanied by adults into mid-September. Often nests in colonies, but may nest singly.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Summer and winter ranges overlap somewhat in some areas; migratory status in those areas? Arrives in breeding areas in Beaufort Sea area in May, most depart by mid-September, though some, especially juveniles, may remain into November (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Sand/dune
Habitat Comments: Primarily in coastal waters, less commonly along large inland bodies of water; sea coasts, bays, estuaries, dumps. Nests on cliffs, rocky coasts, islets in and borders of tundra lakes, coastal dunes. Also low islands and sandbars usually on or near coast; inland river bars; most common on barrier islands immediately offshore from rivers that flood in spring and thereby isolate the island from foxes (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: In Arctic an important predator of lemmings; also predator of young alcids, ducks, and gulls. Feeds on fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and seabird eggs. Preys heavily on eggs and chicks, especially those of waterfowl, in breeding season (Johnson and Herter 1989). Large numbers may stop to feed along barrier islands, at whale carcasses, and at dumps during fall movements (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 69 centimeters
Weight: 1576 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Hunted in Greenland (Evans 1984).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Seabirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map foraging areas as separate polygons if they are separated from the breeding colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Where colonies are closer than 5 kilometers, separate occurrences may be created if research shows little genetic mixing between colonies.
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting and foraging areas, but occurrence separations are based on nesting areas (i.e., distance between nesting areas, regardless of foraging locations). Hence, different occurrences may overlap.

Occurrences are not based on discrete populations or metapopulations. Instead, the separation distance is arbitrarily small such that occurrences are of of practical size for data management purposes.

Evidence from a number of species of seabirds indicates that even though the 'home ranges' of individual nesting seabirds may be immense when foraging trips are taken into account, little movement or feeding overlap may occur between nearby colonies. For example, Thick-billed Murres may commute up to 170 kilometers one way on a feeding trip from the colony, but birds from a colony only 8 kilometers away may forage in a completely different direction; even birds from different sub-colonies only 1.5 kilometers apart mostly fed in completely separate areas (Gaston and Hipfner 2000).

Most seabirds have strong breeding site fidelity; e.g., Thick-billed Murres (Gaston and Hipfner 2000, Gaston et al. 1994), Gray-backed Tern (Mostello et al. 2000), Red-footed Booby (Schreiber et al. 1996).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Somewhat arbitrary, but generally very conservative for this group, many members of which travel long distances to foraging grounds.
Date: 20Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Feeding area, Loafing site, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds (including historical), including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 25 birds regularly occur for more than 20 days per year would be deemed EOs; the number of individuals may be reduced for very rare species. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; defined this small to aid in conservation planning. Sites more than 10 kilometers apart may be joined as one occurrence if research shows that predominantly the same individuals are using both sites.
Date: 07Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

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  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

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  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Chardine, J.W. (ed). 1999. Overview of seabird status and conservation in Canada. Bird Trends (Canadian Wildlife Service) 7: 1-7.

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  • Dionne C. 1906. Les oiseaux de la province de Québec. Dussault et Proulx.

  • Drennan, Susan R. 1986. 86th Christmas bird count. American Birds 40(4):575-1117.

  • Evans, P. G. H. 1984a. The seabirds of Greenland: their status and conservation. Pages 49-84 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.

  • Evans, P. G. H. 1984b. Status and conservation of seabirds in northwest Europe (excluding Norways and the USSR). Pages 293-321 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2.

  • Gaston, A. J., and J. M. Hipfner. 2000. Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia). No. 497 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Gaston, A. J., et al. 1994. Population parameters of thick-billed murres at Coats Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Condor 96:935-948.

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  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. Univ. Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pp.

  • Johnson, S. R. and D. R. Herter. 1989. The Birds of the Beaufort Sea. BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 372 pp.

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  • See SERO listing

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  • The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Banks, R.C., R.T. Chesser, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2008. Forty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 125(3):758-768.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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