Labordia helleri - Sherff
Heller's Labordia
Other Common Names: Kamakahala
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Labordia helleri Sherff (TSN 29934)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129313
Element Code: PDLOG06080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pinkroot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Gentianales Loganiaceae Labordia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Labordia helleri
Taxonomic Comments: Genus widespread in tropics and subtropics, rarely temporate species endemic to Kauai. Closely related to L. tinifolia differs in having longer corolla lobes and in fruit characteristics.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Oct2007
Global Status Last Changed: 07Aug1990
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Labordia helleri is endemic to the island of Kauai in the state of Hawaii. The 16 current occurrences contain an estimated 350-550 plants. 300-500 of these are believed to occur within a single occurrence, with the remaining occurrences having very few plants each. Typical habitat is diverse mesic forest (Russell 2002). Threats to the species and its habitat are pigs, goats, deer, and numerous species of invasive alien plants.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Apr2010)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is endemic to the island of Kauai (USFWS 2004). The largest occurrence is located in the Kokee area from Makaha to Honopu (Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program 2007, USFWS 2004). This occurrence, together with the other scattered current occurrences in the northwestern Kauai, has an estimated extent of occupancy of 150 sq. km. This group was considered to be disjunct from the two southeastern occurrences, for which the combined estimated extent of occupancy is 4 sq. km. Total estimated EO range is therefore 154 sq. km.

Area of Occupancy: 26-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The largest occurrence/subpopulation is located in the Kokee area from Makaha to Honopu (Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program 2004, USFWS 2004), covering an area of approximately 10 sq. km. This occurrence/subpopulation, together with the other current occurrences scattered in the northwestern Kauai, has an estimated area of occupancy of 32 sq. km. This group was considered to be disjunct from the two southeastern occurrences, for which the combined estimated area of occupancy is 4 sq. km. Total estimated AOO is 36 sq. km.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Total number of occurrences are 25, of those 16 are extant occurrences found only on Kauai. Observation records range from 1990-2006 (HBMP 2007) . Although one of these (consisting of a single plant observed in 1992 but not re-located in 1993 after Hurricane Iniki) may be extirpated (USFWS 2004).

Population Size Comments: Total population estimates range from 350 to 550 plants (USFWS 2004). The vast majority of the individuals (300-500) are found within one occurrence/subpopulation, located in the Kokee area from Makaha to Honopu, Kauai (Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program 2004, USFWS 2004).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The vast majority of the individuals (300-500) are found within one occurrence; the remaining occurrences contain very few plants each (Hawaii Biodiversity and Mapping Program 2007).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Feral ungulates (pigs, goats, and deer) are a major threat to this species. These animals degrade and destroy the plant's habitat, for example by causing large-scale erosion. In addition, goats and deer eat leaves and other plant parts (USFWS 2004). Numerous species of alien plants are also found throughout the areas where this species occurs. Although there is no direct documentation of the species' decline due to competition with these species, it is highly probable that this is occurring (USFWS 2004). Overall, both the species and its habitat are judged to be threatened throughout the species' range (USFWS 2004)

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (2004) believes that it is reasonable to assume the populations have continued to decline because the species is highly threatened by a number of factors, and not all threats are being managed throughout the species' range. However, no specific data on long-term population trends is available.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Labordia species are functionally dioecious (Motley and Carr 1998), potentially making reproduction more difficult in very small occurrences.

Environmental Specificity: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is endemic to the island of Kauai (USFWS 2004). The largest occurrence is located in the Kokee area from Makaha to Honopu (Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program 2007, USFWS 2004). This occurrence, together with the other scattered current occurrences in the northwestern Kauai, has an estimated extent of occupancy of 150 sq. km. This group was considered to be disjunct from the two southeastern occurrences, for which the combined estimated extent of occupancy is 4 sq. km. Total estimated EO range is therefore 154 sq. km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Kauai (15007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Shrubs 2-4.5 m tall, sometimes climbing. Cymes pendulous or erect, with 3-9 flowers. Corollas white or pale greenish yellow.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Moist forests in gulches or on ridges.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Oct2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: J. Lau, rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. K. Gravuer (2006), rev. D. Matsuwaki (2007)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program (HBMP). 2004, January 2006 last update. Databook. Online. Available: http://hbmp.hawaii.edu/databook.html (Accessed 2006).

  • Hawaii Biodiverity and Mapping Program. 2007. Natural Diversity Database. Unpublished.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Motley, T. J. and G. D. Carr. 1998. Artificial hybridization in the Hawaiian endemic genus Labordia (Loganiaceae). American Journal of Botany 85(5): 654-660.

  • Russell, C. 2002. February-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Labordia helleri. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r1/labhel.pdf. Accessed 2003, March 5.

  • Sherff, E.E. 1938. Studies in the genus Labordia Gaud., with a new variety in Megalodonta E.L. Greene. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 579-589.

  • Sherff, E.E. 1939. Genus Labordia. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 17: 445-546.

  • Sherff, E.E. 1954. Further notes upon the flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Bot. Leafl. 9: 2-10.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004, June last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Labordia helleri. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/species_profile/servlet/gov.doi.species_profile.servlets.SpeciesProfile?spcode=Q34Q (Accessed May 2006).

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

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