Lepomis microlophus - (Günther, 1859)
Redear Sunfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lepomis microlophus (Günther, 1859) (TSN 168154)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100707
Element Code: AFCQB11090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Sunfishes and Freshwater Basses
Image 91

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Centrarchidae Lepomis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lepomis microlophus
Taxonomic Comments: The ranges and morphological characteristics of the two formerly distinct (but unnamed) subspecies have been obscured by extensive translocations.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S5), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from about Savannah River, South Carolina, to Nueces River, Texas; north in Mississippi River basin to southern Indiana and Illinois (Page and Burr 1991). Introduced in many areas west and north of native range. Common.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from about Savannah River, South Carolina, to Nueces River, Texas; north in Mississippi River basin to southern Indiana and Illinois (Page and Burr 1991). Introduced in many areas west and north of native range. Common.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FL, GA, IAexotic, IL, IN, KSexotic, KY, LA, MIexotic, MO, MS, NCexotic, NEexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, OH, OK, ORexotic, PAexotic, SC, TN, TX, VAexotic, VTexotic, WVexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Bernalillo (35001)*, Guadalupe (35019)*, Sierra (35051)*, Socorro (35053)*, Valencia (35061)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Tar (03020101), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Deep (03030003), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Lower Catawba (03050103), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Altamaha (03070106), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Charlotte Harbor (03100103), Sarasota Bay (03100201), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Perdido Bay (03140107), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Tug (05070201), Lower Levisa (05070203), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Vermilion (05120109), Embarras (05120112), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Collins (05130107), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)*, Meramec (07140102), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Deer-Steele (08030209)*, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Lower Gasconade (10290203)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), West Cache (11130203), Lake Texoma (11130210), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Upper Trinity (12030105), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Upper Frio (12110106), Lower Frio (12110108), Lower Nueces (12110111), Baffin Bay (12110205)
13 Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+*, Caballo (13030101)+*, Upper Devils (13040301), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Pecos headwaters (13060001)+*, San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns throughout warmer months; males guard eggs and hatchlings; spawners are generally 2 years old or older; often nests in colonies (Moyle 1976, Manooch 1984).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Deeper waters of warm quiet ponds, lakes, backwaters of small to medium rivers, reservoirs, and swamps; usually in clear water with abundant vegetation, stumps, logs, or other cover, with substrate of mud or sand. Occasionally occurs in brackish water. Eggs are laid in a nest made by the male in shallow water on bottom; often nests in colonies.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats snails, aquatic insect larvae, and small crustaceans obtained from bottom or from plant surfaces (Moyle 1976). Pharyngeal jaws are specialized for crushing hard-shelled prey.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 25 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Sunfishes (Centrarchids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Although members of this group vary in size and probably in typical movement distances, it is likely that even the smallest centrarchids occasionally disperse as far as do large centrarchids. Hence a single separation distance is used for all members of the family. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Note that some species some species may at time be hard to detect. For example, nowhere is the Carolina pygmy sunfish known to be abundant. In addition, it is essentially an annual species, with adults dying soon after spawning, at an age of 12-15 months. In addition, young are so small that, for a several months, documentation of the species' presence at a particular locality might be almost impossible, at least without preserving specimens. Therefore, negative data at a known locality should be carefully interpreted (P. Shute).
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • EDWARDS, ROBERT J. AND SALVADOR CONTRERAS-BALDERAS. 1991. HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE LOWER RIO GRANDE (RIO BRAVO DEL NORTE), TEXAS AND MEXICO. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 36(2):201-212.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Ferguson, M. 2000. Personal communication to Kristen Rose of 05 December 2000. Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage Program.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • La Rivers, I. 1994. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. University of Nevada Press, Reno. 782 pp.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Edwards, R. J. and S. Contreras-Balderas. 1991. Historical changes in the ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte), Texas and Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 36(2): 201-212.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

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  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

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  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

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