Kummerowia striata - (Thunb.) Schindl.
Common Korean-clover
Other English Common Names: Japanese-clover
Other Common Names: Japanese clover
Synonym(s): Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) Hook. & Arn.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. (TSN 503294)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154848
Element Code: PDFAB24020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Kummerowia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Kummerowia striata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, IAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MDexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, PAexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, VAexotic, WVexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Planted for forage and soil improvement. Mainly found in disturbed areas especially pastures, old fields, roadsides, and waste areas. Fixes nitrogen and is highly competitive on infertile sites but is usually overgrown by other pioneers in a few years. It can thrive in some prairies and open woodlands. Scattered throughout most of the eastern U.S. but apparently having low impacts in most areas.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 14Jun2006
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Russian Federation (USDA 2005).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Occurs in pastures, old fields, roadsides, diverse barren or eroding ruderal sites, urban waste areas and lawns (Isely 1998).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance
Comments: Fixes nitrogren (Erdman 1967).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance
Comments: Annual; prostrate, ascending or erect to 4 dm (Isely 1998).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance
Comments: May displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed (NRCS 2002). In some open woodlands with acid soil in the Great Plains, it has become well established and locally abundant (Great Plains Flora Association 1986).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No mention of disproportionate impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not significant.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In Missouri, capable of thriving in some prairie vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell 1999). In some open woodlands with acid soil in the Great Plains, it has become well established and locally abundant (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). Naturalized in dry open woods, rocky open areas, and gravelly stream banks (Sullivan 1993). At least some of these communities may be of conservation significance but apparently, it is not often threatening elements of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Established in scattered counties from Connecticut south to Florida, west to Kansas and New Mexico (J. Kartesz, unpublished data).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: In Missouri, capable of thriving in some prairie vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell 1999). In Indiana, not known to have moved into natural areas (Jacquart et al. 2004). In some open woodlands with acid soil in the Great Plains, it has become well established and locally abundant (Great Plains Flora Association 1986).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Moderate significance
Comments: Inferred from distribution as currently understood (J. Kartesz, unpublished data; TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Occurs in pastures, old fields, roadsides, diverse barren or eroding ruderal sites, urban waste areas and lawns (Isely 1998). In Missouri, capable of thriving in some prairie vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell 1999). Naturalized in dry open woods, rocky open areas, and gravelly stream banks (Sullivan 1993).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Planted for forage and soil improvement (Isely 1998). In some open woodlands with acid soil in the Great Plains, it has become well established and locally abundant (Great Plains Flora Association 1986).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and J. Kartesz, unpublished data.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Planted for forage and soil improvement (Isely 1998). Seed is readily available from commercial seed dealers (NRCS 2002). Often included in grass mixtures in order to promote rapid establishment of grasses (Sullivan 1993).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: Planted for forage and soil improvement (Isely 1998). In some open woodlands with acid soil in the Great Plains, it has become well established and locally abundant (Great Plains Flora Association 1986).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Germinates fairly well in infertile, somewhat disturbed sites but not on fertile sites with dense vegetation (Jacquart et al. 2004). Highly competitive in infertile sites, yet often outcompeted on fertile sites (Jacquart et al. 2004). Weak to moderate grassland competitor (Ladd and Churchwell 1999). A pioneer on disturbed sites but it is usually overgrown by other pioneers in 2 or 3 years (Sullivan 1993).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Distributed in cultivation and widely established in both hemispheres (Isely 1998). No mention of invasion of native species habitats elsewhere found in the literature; assumption is that occurs in similar habitats outside the region of interest.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Reproduces only by seed (Jacquart et al. 2004). Reproduces one or more times a year (Jacquart et al. 2004). Produces a moderate number of seeds, 11-1000 (Jacquart et al. 2004). Strong exhibition of aggressive reproductive characteristics not found in the literature; assumption is that the species is not moderately or extremely aggressive.

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: No mention of control requiring a major long-term investment found in the literature; assumption is that a major long-term investment is not required.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of control requiring more than 10 years found in the literature; assumption is that control requires less than 10 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of severe management impacts on natives found in the literature; assumption is that management impacts do not cause significant and persistent reductions in native species >75% of the time.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Planted for forage and soil improvement (Isely 1998). A potential host of soybean rust (USDA 2004). Assumption is at least in some areas, accessibility may be a problem but problems are not severe or substantial.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Erdman, L. W. 1967. Legume inoculation: what it is - what it does. Farmer's Bulletin No. 2003. U.S. Department of Agriculture. [http://www.caf.wvu.edu/~forage/library/forglvst/bulletins/bul2003.pdf]

  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS). 2005. December 5 last update. ILDIS World Database of Legumes version 10. Online. Available: http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb/ (accessed 2006).

  • Isely, D. 1998. Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University; MLBM Press, Provo, Utah. 1007 pp.

  • Jacquart, E., L. Casebere, G. Langell, E. Guljas, and P. O'Connor. 2004. Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group, Lespedeza Assessment Update, July 28, 2004. The Nature Conservancy, Indianapolis. [http://www.in.gov/dnr/invasivespecies/minutes_IPSAWG_07-28-04.doc]

  • Jacquart, E., L. Casebere, G. Langell, E. Guljas, and P. O'Connor. 2004. Lespedeza Assessment Meeting, 9 am, July 6, 2004. The Nature Conservancy, Indianapolis. [http://www.in.gov/dnr/invasivespecies/lespedeza_assessment.doc]

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Ladd, D. and B. Churchwell. 1999. Ecological and floristic assessment of Missouri Prairie Foundation lands. The Nature Conservancy, Missouri Field Office, St. Louis. [http://www.moprairie.org/floristic/index.html]

  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). 2002. NRCS Plant Fact Sheet for Common Lespedeza, Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program. [http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/factsheet/doc/fs_kust2.doc]

  • Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Lespedeza striata. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [accessed 28 April 2006].

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2005. December 9 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov2/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2006).

  • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2004. Strategic plan to minimize the impact of the introduction and establishment of soybean rust on soybean production in the United States soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi, P. meibomiae. USDA Marketing and Regulatory Programs, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, November 2004. [http://www.ipmcenters.org/NewsAlerts/ soybeanrust/strategicplan.pdf]

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

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