Kalmiopsis fragrans - Meinke & Kaye
North Umpqua Kalmiopsis
Other English Common Names: Fragrant Kalmiopsis, Umpqua Kalmiopsis
Other Common Names: North Umpqua kalmiopsis
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151001
Element Code: PDERI0L020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Heath Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Ericaceae Kalmiopsis
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Meinke, R. J. and T. N. Kaye. 2007. Kalmiopsis fragrans (Ericaceae), a new distylous species from the southern Cascade mountains of Oregon. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(1): 9-19.
Concept Reference Code: A07MEI01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Kalmiopsis fragrans
Taxonomic Comments: Newly published in 2007 (Meinke and Kaye 2007). This material had previously been considered to be part of Kalmiopsis leachiana; Kalmiopsis fragrans now refers to northern populations (Douglas County, OR), while Kalmiopsis leachiana is retained for the southern populations (Curry and Josephine counties, OR). The genus Kalmiopsis, consisting of only these two species, is endemic to Oregon.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Apr2013
Global Status Last Changed: 02Apr2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Kalmiopsis fragrans is endemic to a narrow band of rocky habitat along the west slope of the southern Cascade Mountains within the North Umpqua River watershed in Douglas County, southwestern Oregon. The number of known populations has increased since this species was first ranked (2010), and those populations appear to be stable. However, reproduction seems to be primarily vegetative and only one seedling has ever been seen in the wild. Threats appear to be moderate, but high-intensity fires or logging activities could put populations at risk. The potential impact of herbivory is not yet well understood.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Oregon (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to a narrow band of rocky habitat along the west slope of the southern Cascade Mountains within the North Umpqua River watershed in Douglas County, southwestern Oregon(Meinke and Kaye 2007). Range extent of 571 km2 calculated using convex hull.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: 15 4 sq km grid cells occupied by extant EOs.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twelve occurrences using a 1 km separation distance.

Population Size Comments: Counts from 2000-2010 total about 30,000 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: 5 EOs (using 1 km separation distance) with good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: (1) Potential threat from timber harvest practices and road-building. The rocky and often steep nature of K. fragrans sites, its Sensitive status, the location of several occurrences within a Research Natural Area, and the occasional co-occurrence of K. fragrans with federally-managed peregrine falcons all afford it some degree of protection from direct impacts. However, Forest Service surveys in advance of both logging and road building projects have uncovered K. fragrans populations, demonstrating that the surrounding forest is often believed suitable for these activities, and that indirect impacts are therefore a risk for at least some sites. Habitat disturbance that results in reduced soil moisture and increased sunlight has been observed to cause population decline, including increased anthocyanic pigmentation, greater disease susceptibility, and higher mortality; further studies are underway to assess how the removal of forest overstory along the edges of tuffaceous outcrops might impact K. fragrans (Meinke and Kaye 2007).
(2) Forest wildfires had also been suggested as a threat. A study of the recovery of two K. fragrans sites from fire (Amsberry et al. 2007) showed that, although fire significantly reduced the standing cover of K. fragrans plants compared to an unburned site, a portion of the plants within each of the burned populations survived, resprouted, and grew slightly faster than those at the unburned site, though with relatively slow regrowth overall. Plants at the burned sites also flowered more profusely than those at the unburned site; the sporadic creation of canopy openings by fire (or other disturbance) may be a critical process facilitating sexual reproduction in this species (Amsberry et al. 2007). Overall, the results of this study seem to suggest that, while fire may pose a short-term risk to the persistence of individual K. fragrans populations by reducing standing biomass, it appears to be an ultimately tolerable and perhaps even necessary process for this species over the longer term.
(3) Herbivory, presumably by deer, impacted significant numbers of plants at one of the sites monitored by Amsberry et al. (2007). The degree to which such herbivory may be a rangewide threat should be further investigated.
(4) There is no record of K. fragrans being mass collected in the wild, and wild collection does not appear to be a significant current threat. K. fragrans is relatively easily grown from seed and commercially-grown plants are available in the horticultural trade (Meinke and Kaye 2007).
(5) Calculated as moderately vulnerable to climate change.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Appears to be stable.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Mature plants (shrubs) are probably fairly resistant whereas seedlings are probably very vulnerable.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Associated with a specific, uncommon rock type and requires particular light conditions for substantial flowering and fruiting.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to a narrow band of rocky habitat along the west slope of the southern Cascade Mountains within the North Umpqua River watershed in Douglas County, southwestern Oregon(Meinke and Kaye 2007). Range extent of 571 km2 calculated using convex hull.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OR Douglas (41019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: An attractive long-lived evergreen shrub; may be upright or trailing/matted. Leaves are small, leathery, shiny dark green, oval to egg-shaped. Relatively large reddish-purple to bright pink flowers appear between April and June.
General Description: Perennial, evergreen, multi-stemmed shrub that may be erect or trailing/matted. Stems have peeling reddish-gray bark. Leaves are oval to egg-shaped, dark green and shiny with golden crystalline glands on their undersides. There are 4-7 flowers per stem; flowers are reddish-purple to bright pink, fragrant, relatively large (16-28 mm), urn or bell-shaped (lacking a defined throat) to nearly flat as the petal lobes bend back. 10 stamens protrude conspicuously from each fully-open flower and have dense yellow hairs at their bases. Fruits are dry capsules that split open to release many tiny seeds. Flowers April to June and disperses seeds later in the summer (Amsberry et al. 2007, Oregon Flora Project 2007).
Technical Description: Meinke and Kaye (2007): "Evergreen shrub, woody below (depending on age and size), usually openly branched (although internodes will shorten and habit becomes condensed in full sun), mature plants tenaciously rooted in shallow soils on the forest floor, or more often loosely attached and clambering over rocky substrates with thin organic mats, sometimes draped over or hanging from vertical cliffs, occasionally suspended under rock overhangs, capable of vegetative propagation by subterranean stems (often through rock fissures) or via adventitious rooting, occasionally crown-sprouting, locally forming populations consisting of one or few clones; stems few to numerous, (2-)4-12(-30) dm long, erect to trailing and occasionally matted, arising from a thickened base, glabrous or rarely with sparse, fine, white pubescence, often brittle, exfoliaceous, epidermis reddish to gray, terminally leafy and mostly naked below, the new growth stipitate-glandular and often fragrant with a faintly sweet scent; leaves numerous, crowded above (or less so in deep shade), thinly coriaceous with a thick cuticle above and below, dark green, glabrous, and shining above (or reddish in anthocyanic individuals in full sun), paler and punctately dotted with golden-crystalline, sweetly aromatic glands below, blade (5)8-30(-45) mm long, elliptic to obovate, apiculate, petioles glabrous to finely puberulent, less than one-fifth the length of the blades, erect to horizontally oriented; inflorescence terminal, corymbose to racemose, (2-)4-8(-12) per corymb, floral bud scales 2-3 mm long, membranaceous, glabrous or with scattered crystalline glands, pale to reddish-pink, broadly lanceolate; flowers dimorphic, consisting of long- and short-styled forms on separate plants, aromatic with a spicy-sweet odor, somewhat azalea-like, the aroma persisting and often intensifying with age; pedicels 0.5-2.5(-3.3) cm long, mostly glandular-pubescent; calyx glabrous, urceolate to campanulate, greenish to mostly pale pink or red, sepals 3-6(-8) mm long, overlapping at the base, thin, broadly lanceolate, margins involute; corolla pale reddish-purple to deep pink when fresh, deciduous, actinomorphic, lacking a defined throat, the shallow tube < 2 mm deep, the limb 16-28(-33) mm across, broadly cupped to campanulate in early anthesis but becoming essentially rotate with age as the petal lobes reflex, lobes deltoid-ovate, 6-12 mm long and 4-8 mm wide, with two parallel, ventral ridges giving petals the appearance of thickness, petal sinuses divided to within 2-3 mm of the corolla tube, the lower edges of the petal lobes overlapping; stamens 10, nestled along the petal ridges in bud and as corollas open, spreading to erect and well exserted at full anthesis, those of long-styled flowers 7-13 mm long and those of short-styled flowers 11-16 mm long, filaments light pink or paler, basally dilated, glabrous or with scattered hairs above, typically with a copious tuft of pale yellow to golden translucent hairs present at the very base (rarely subglabrous throughout), these joining to form a dense ring of pubescence in the floral tube that surrounds and generally conceals the base of the ovary; anthers light purple, narrow-oblong, often slightly curved, 1.2-3.0 mm long, the terminal pore openings < 0.4 mm across; pollen cream to ochroleucous, tetrads, 50-60 , no differences noted between floral morphs; styles red to purple, usually glabrous or rarely with a few isolated hairs, 11-15 mm long in long-styled morphs and 5-8 mm long in short-styled morphs; stigma pale, rounded, capitates to shallowly bi-lobed, obviously sticky, no differences noted between floral morphs; ovary 2-3 mm wide and high, globose, pale yellowish gold, glandular, ovules numerous; capsule depressed, 3-5 mm broad, shallowly five-lobed, glandular-warty; seeds minute, 0.3-0.7 mm long, oblong, shallowly pitted, potentially over 150 per capsule (although abortion may result in far fewer).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Kalmiopsis fragrans differs most apparently from K. leachiana in its flowers (Meinke and Kaye 2007). In this respect, K. fragrans can be distinguished from K. leachiana by its (1) glandular-hairy flower pedicels (vs. flower pedicels not glandular-hairy), (2) larger corolla (16-28(-33) mm across vs. (12-)14-20 mm across), (3) petal sinuses deeply cleft, to within 2-3 mm of the floral tube (vs. moderately cleft, to within 4-7 mm of the floral tube), (4) corolla with a poorly-defined tube, becoming nearly flat and rotate as petal lobes reflex (vs. corolla with a more well-defined tube, petals reflexing but floral tubes remaining tubular-campanulate), (5) longer stamens (7-13 mm in long-styled morph vs. 3-7(-9) mm in long-styled morph), (6) larger anthers (1.2-3.0 mm long vs. 0.7-1.8 mm long), (7) flowers with yellowish cilia densely tufted at base of filaments surrounding ovary, evident in floral tube (tube area rarely subglabrous) (vs. flowers completely glabrous, or occasionally with fine cilia lining basal interior of floral tube, but not tufted or attached to filaments), and (8) flowers with spicy-sweet azalea-like scent, with nectar merely a trace or typically absent (vs. flowers lacking a pronounced odor, with nectar pooling in floral tube). K. fragrans also differs prominently from K. leachiana in its (9) erect to trailing or matted habit (vs. usually erect habit) and (10) stem length to 12 dm and rarely up to 30 dm (vs. 2-4 dm, rarely up to 8 dm). Less conspicuously, K. fragrans can be distinguished from K. leachiana by its (10) inflorescences usually with 4-8 flowers, sometimes as few as 2 or as many as 12 (vs. inflorescences usually with 7-12 flowers, sometimes as few as 5 or as many as 15), (11) petals sculpted with ridges connected within petals (vs. ridges connected between petals), (12) light pink or reddish-purple corolla (vs. rose to deep pink corolla), (13) style 11-15 mm long in long-styled morph (vs. style 7-10 mm long in long-styled morph), (14) anthers narrowly oblong or curved linear, the pore round, < 0.4 mm (vs. anthers oblong, the pore flared, 0.5-0.9 mm), (15) ovary pale yellow to gold (vs. greenish gold), and (16) clearly protogynous breeding system, with pollen shed from a few hours to a day after corolla expansion (vs. slightly protandrous to slightly protogynous breeding system, with pollen shed about the time of corolla expansion). The species also differ in habitat and geographic distribution (Meinke and Kaye 2007, Oregon Flora Project 2007, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2009). Populations typically flower from mid-April to early June, depending on elevation. Seed production and dispersal occurs into August.
Reproduction Comments: Kalmiopsis fragrans flowers are distylous - i.e., each plant has one of two different reproductive morphologies: longer styles/shorter stamens or longer stamens/shorter styles. In other plants, such morphologies are believed to have evolved to ensure a high rate of outcrossing; however, whether this is true for K. fragrans is still somewhat unclear (Meinke and Kaye 2007). Beyond K. fragrans and K. leachiana, distyly is otherwise unknown in the Ericaceae. K. fragrans floral morphology is not typical of heterostylous species (which tend to have strongly tubular, campanulate, or funnelform corollas), and the degree to which it possesses other primary traits that define heterostyly (e.g., diallelic self-incompatibility) requires further evaluation (Meinke and Kaye 2007). Field observations of pollinators indicate that the different floral morphs may facilitate outcrossing, and a controlled pollination study found that intermorph pollinations produced the greatest number of seeds, followed by intramorph pollinations and self-pollinations. However, the intramorph pollinations still produced a significant number of apparently viable seeds (statistically greater than the selfed pollinations), suggesting that the degree to which heterostyly ensures outcrossing in K. fragrans may be limited. Research on this issue is ongoing (Meinke and Kaye 2007).
Ecology Comments: Flowering tends to occur most profusely in sites with consistent, filtered light. Populations also occur within more densely shaded conditions (e.g., within shallow caves or overhangs while growing from high rock ceilings or along deeply sheltered cliffs); these populations can persist for years, but seldom if ever produce flowers or seed. Habitat disturbance that results in reduced soil moisture and increased sunlight (e.g., clear cutting) has been observed to cause population decline, including increased anthocyanic pigmentation, greater disease susceptibility, and higher mortality; these effects are most pronounced in populations from deeper forests (Meinke and Kaye 2007).
Habitat Comments: Usually on or closely adjacent to rock outcrops, steep rocky talus slopes, boulder piles, or large pillars; can grow on nearly bare rock, in crevices, or on shallow soil. The rock type at occupied sites tends to be silicified tuff, an altered andesite substrate with a poorly developed soil layer. Sites often have south-facing aspects and can be deeply shaded to partially open. These rocky sites are found within cool, mesic mixed conifer forests dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus lambertiana, Abies grandis, Tsuga heterophylla, Calocedrus decurrens, and/or Thuja plicata, and often including some Arbutus menziesii. Understory associates include Mahonia nervosa, Holodiscus discolor, Gaultheria shallon, Oxalis oregana, Whipplea modesta, Chrysolepis chrysophylla, Polystichum munitum, Linnaea borealis, Rosa gymnocarpa, Pterospora andromedea, Pleuricospora fimbriolata, Allotropa virgata, Rhododendron macrophyllum, Acer circinatum, Toxicodendron diversilobum, Goodyera oblongifolia, Thermopsis montana, Iris chrysophylla, Pyrola picta, Sanicula graveolens, Viola orbiculata, Calypso bulbosa, Erythronium citrinum, and Luzula campestris. 400-1325 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Habitat disturbance that results in reduced soil moisture and increased sunlight (e.g., clear cutting) has been observed to cause population decline, including increased anthocyanic pigmentation, greater disease susceptibility, and higher mortality, in Kalmiopsis fragrans (Meinke and Kaye 2007). Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce or eliminate the potential for such disturbances within occupied and potential K. fragrans habitat. The extent to which herbivory by deer and/or other consumers may be impacting K. fragrans populations (Amsberry et al. 2007) should be assessed and appropriate management responses (e.g., exclosures) implemented if needed. Further study of the reasons for and implications of very low seedling recruitment in this species would also appear to be worthwhile; efforts to manage the genetic make-up of individual populations might be considered if they appear to be needed. Additional study of fire impacts on K. fragrans would be valuable input to fire management planning.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Nov2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vrilakas, Sue (1999), rev. K. Gravuer (2010), rev. Lindsey Wise (2012)
Management Information Edition Date: 05Sep2010
Management Information Edition Author: Gravuer, K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Sep2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): VRILAKAS, SUE (1999); rev. K. Gravuer (2010)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Amsberry, K., K. Mitchell, L. Martin, and R. Meinke. 2007. Evaluating population viability and the effects of fire on Kalmiopsis fragrans. Oregon Department of Agriculture Native Pland Conservation Program for U.S. Forest Service, Umpqua National Forest (No. 04-CS-11061500-015, Mod. No. 2, Study Year 3 ). 18 October 2007. Online. Available: (Accessed 2010).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Meinke, R. J. and T. N. Kaye. 2007. Kalmiopsis fragrans (Ericaceae), a new distylous species from the southern Cascade mountains of Oregon. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(1): 9-19.

  • Meinke, R.J. 1982. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 326 pp.

  • Oregon Flora Project. 2007 last update. Rare Plant Guide. Online. Available: http://www.oregonflora.org/rareplants/index.php (Accessed 2008).

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.