Isoetes melanospora - Engelm.
Black-spored Quillwort
Other English Common Names: Blackspore Quillwort
Other Common Names: blackspore quillwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Isoetes melanospora Engelm. (TSN 17136)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159181
Element Code: PPISO010E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Lycophyta Isoetopsida Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoetes
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Isoetes melanospora
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species, distinguished by its complete velum coverage, dark tuberculate megaspores, and short spiral leaves.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Jan2006
Global Status Last Changed: 24Mar1987
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Historically known from 18 sites in Georgia and 1 in South Carolina, but due to habitat loss, now surviving at only 12 locations. Restricted to granite outcrop pools, which are rapidly being destroyed by quarrying, trash dumping, and heavy recreational use. Some important sites have been protected, but the prospects for continued existence at unprotected sites is bleak.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (S1), South Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (05Feb1988)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Piedmont physiographic region in Georgia. Also known (historically) from 1 site in S. Carolina.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Georgia there are 12 extant occurrences in 6 counties (Butts, Dekalb Greene, Gwinnett, Heard, and Jackson). The populations in Greene and Jackson counties are transplants. There are also 6 extirpated populations in 3 counties (Dekalb, Newton, and Rockdale). Two populations have been historically reported from South Carolina, one from Boggs Rock in Pickens County, where only I. piedmontana has been found recently and another from Lancaster County at Forty-acre Rock. The population at Forty-acre Rock is apparently representative of another, perhaps undescribed taxon (Weakley 2006) and is not listed in the recent, thorough treatment of this group by Heafner and Bray (2005). The population at Boggs Rock does not seem to be extant, searches in 2003, 2004 and 2005 turned up only I. piedmontana.

Population Size Comments: There is a single large population in excessof 10,000 individuals in Georgia at one of the Mt. Arabia sites; these had over 10,000 and 700 individuals, respectively, as counted by Mincy Moffett in 2005. Stone Mtn. and Camp Meeting Rock both had several hundred individuals when last observed in 2002. Other populations tend to be 50 plants or fewer. In South Carolina the status of plants from Forty Acre Rock should be determined, if these plants are indeed I. melanospora then a single, large, apparently stable population is located within South Carolina.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: In Georgia there are 3 populations with excellent/good viability and another 2 with good viability (Baker's Rock, and Lithonia Outcrop). In South Carolina the Pickens County population is perhaps no longer extant and is on private property.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Some threats exist from quarrying, recreational activities, dumping, fires, trampling, and vandalism. There are few locations with good management and the habitat is extremely slow to repair itself.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: In Georgia the species is declining in unprotected sites, but stable in protected ones. In South Carolina, the only vouchered population is not believed to be extant.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Nutrition overload in pools located in pastures will kill the quillwort. Habitat is extremely slow to repair itself.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Piedmont physiographic region in Georgia. Also known (historically) from 1 site in S. Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Butts (13035), DeKalb (13089), Greene (13133), Gwinnett (13135), Heard (13149), Jackson (13157), Newton (13217)*, Rockdale (13247)
SC Lancaster (45057), Pickens (45077)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lynches (03040202)+, Seneca (03060101)+*, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+, Upper Oconee (03070101)+, Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial fern ally that forms small tufts of erect to spreading, linear leaves, 2.5-8 cm tall, usually arranged spirally on the bulbous rootstock. Produces dark-colored megaspores (most other quillworts have whitish spores), mostly in early May to June.
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Barrens
Habitat Comments: Shallow, flat-bottomed, temporary pools that form in depressions on granite outcrops. These depressions are less than 3 dm deep and usually contain at least 2 cm of soil. They may be dry during much of the summer. Associated with other rare and endangered granite outcrop endemics, including Amphianthus pusillus (poolsprite).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: P. D. McMillan and J. M. Moffett

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allison, J.R. 1993. Recovery plan for three granite outcrop plant species. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, Mississippi. 41 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 1. Introduction. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Heafner, K.D. and R.D. Bray. 2005. Taxonomic reassessment of North American granite outcrop Isoetes species with emphasis on vegetative morphology and I. piedmontana (Pfeiffer) Reed, sensu lato. Castanea 70(3): 204-221.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the U.S. and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 389 pp.

  • Matthews, J.F., and W.H. Murdy. 1969. A study of Isoetes common to the granite ourcrops of the southeastern Piedmont, United States. Botanical Gazette 130: 53-61.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Endangered or threatened status for three granite outcrop plants. Federal Register 53(24): 3560-3565.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.