Isoetes louisianensis - Thieret
Louisiana Quillwort
Other Common Names: Louisiana quillwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Isoetes louisianensis Thieret (TSN 17133)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147932
Element Code: PPISO010B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Lycophyta Isoetopsida Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoetes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Isoetes louisianensis
Taxonomic Comments: This species represents a polyphyletic assemblage, meaning all the tetraploid populations identified as I. louisianensis do not represent the same biological entity (Heafner 2009).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Mar2009
Global Status Last Changed: 09Mar2009
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Isoetes louisianensis is known from shallow blackwater streams in the riparian woodlands and bayhead forests of southern Mississippi, two Parishes in adjacent eastern Louisiana, and two counties in southern Alabama. Approximately 46 occurrences are believed extant, mostly in Mississippi. The total population appears to be between 10,000 and 70,000 plants. Threats include any activity that affects the hydrology, water quality, or substrate stability of the habitat, such as sand and gravel dredging, stream channelization, livestock grazing in the streams, feral pig activity, and/or erosion from clear-cut logging of adjacent forests.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Louisiana (S2), Mississippi (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (28Oct1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in ten counties in southern Mississippi, as well as St. Tammany and Washington Parishes in adjacent eastern Louisiana and Monroe and Conecuh Counties in nearby southern Alabama (Moore and Leonard 1996, Sorrie and Leonard 1999). Range extent is approximately 22,000 square km.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy 184 square km, calculated based on 46 unique 4 km square grid cells occupied.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 46 occurrences are believed extant, mostly in Mississippi, with 9 occurrences believed extant in Louisiana and 2 in Alabama. One additional Louisiana occurrence has been extirpated.

Population Size Comments: Several occurrences number over 1000 plants. The total population appears to be between 10,000 and 70,000 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Approximately 30 occurrences are believed to have excellent or good viability, but some have not been re-surveyed for a number of years, so the viability assessment would benefit from field confirmation.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Activities that affect the hydrology, water quality, or substrate stability of this species' stream habitat are the main threats to its survival. Such impacts could result from sand and gravel dredging, stream channelization, livestock grazing in the streams, feral pig activity, and/or erosion from clear-cut logging of adjacent forests; all of these are occurring within the species's range (Kral 1983, USFWS 1991).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Short-term Trend Comments: Estimated decline of >30%, possibly >50%, based on the prevalence of known threats.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Estimated decline of >30%, possibly >50%, based on the prevalence of known threats.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species requires specific hydrology, water quality, and substrate characteristics in order to thrive.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in ten counties in southern Mississippi, as well as St. Tammany and Washington Parishes in adjacent eastern Louisiana and Monroe and Conecuh Counties in nearby southern Alabama (Moore and Leonard 1996, Sorrie and Leonard 1999). Range extent is approximately 22,000 square km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, LA, MS

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Conecuh (01035), Monroe (01099)
LA St. Tammany (22103), Washington (22117)
MS Forrest (28035), Greene (28041), Hancock (28045), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Jones (28067), Pearl River (28109), Perry (28111), Stone (28131), Wayne (28153)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Conecuh (03140304)+, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003)+, Lower Leaf (03170005)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
08 Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A semi-aquatic, primitive, seedless plant related to ferns. Produces numerous grass-like leaves that vary in legnth from 15 to 40 cm long depending on water depth. The leaves arise from a fleshy, 2-lobed stem that is shallowly rooted in the substrate. The plants produce spores in early spring and in the fall.
General Description: Plants sedge-like and growing in and along small streams. Leaves weak and droopy, arranged in whorls radiating from a central point. Leaves with 4 air chambers visible in cross-section, two above and two below. Leaves semi-circular in cross-section, true sedges may look similar at a glance but their leaves are often triangular in cross-section and stiffer (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, 2006).
Technical Description: Plants aquatic, emergent. Rootstock nearly globose, 2-lobed. Leaves evergreen, bright green, pale toward base, spirally arranged to 40 cm, pliant, gradually tapering to tip. Velum covering less than 1/2 of sporangium. Sporangium wall brown-streaked. Megaspores white, 500--625 ým diam., cristate with thick ridges; girdle obscure. Microspores brown in mass, 25-35 ým, spinulose. 2n = 44 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 1993).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Appears to be restricted to shallow blackwater streams in riparian woodland and bayhead forest areas of pine flatwoods. The plants are found on stable sand and gravel bars, moist overflow channels with silty sand substrates, and on low, sloping banks near and below water level.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Sand and gravel dredging, stream channelization, and erosion from clear-cut logging of adjacent forests, are threats to occurrences of this plant which grows in streams (USFWS 1991, Larke 1995). Management plans for this species' conservation should seek to address these issues on land surrounding occupied and potential habitat.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Annable, C. (1992), rev. Larke/Maybury (1996), rev. L. Morse (2001), rev. C. Nordman (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. C. Nordman (2009)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Davis, Gwen. 1999. Isoetes louisianensis reranking. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 1 p.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Larke, J. 1995. Technical/agency draft recovery plan for Louisiana quillwort (Isoetes louisianensis Thieret). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, Jackson, Mississippi.

  • Leonard, Steve W. 2001. Isoetes in the southeastern United States. E-mail to Miss. Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 2 pp.

  • Leonard, Steve. 1996. Prospects for Isoetes in Mississippi. Memorandum sent to Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 2pp.

  • Leonard, Steve. 1999. State conservation ranking recommendations for species included in the paper:Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908.

  • Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. 2006. Rare Plants of Louisiana. Isoetes louisianensis - Louisiana quillwort Rare Plant Fact Sheet. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/pdfs/experience/naturalheritage/rareplant/isoetes_louisianensis.pdf]

  • Moore, J., and S.W. Leonard. 1996. Unpublished memorandum to Camp Shelby National Guard reporting location of Louisiana quillwort in DeSoto National Forest, Forrest County, Mississippi.

  • Sorrie, B.A. 1999. Species ranking for noteworthy plants of Mississippi (A99SOR01MSUS). E-mail of Sept. 1, 1999 to MSHP.

  • Sorrie, B.A. and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3):889-908.

  • Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908. Address: BRUCE SORRIE, 3076 NIAGARA-CARTHAGE ROAD, WHISPERING PINES, NC 28327

  • Thieret, J.W. 1980. Louisiana ferns and fern allies. Lafayette Natural History Museum, Lafayette. 123 pp.

  • Thieret, J.W., and G. Landry. 1973. Isoetes louisianensis (Isoetaceae), a new species from Louisiana. Sida 5(2):129-130.

  • Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana. Volume 1: Ferns and fern allies, conifers, and monocotyledons. Louisiana Dept. Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 217 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. Proposed endangered status for the plant Isoetes louisianensis (Louisiana quillwort). Federal Register 56(205):52500-52503.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Determination of endangered status for the plant Isoetes louisianensis (Louisiana quillwort). Federal Register 57(209):48741-48747.

  • U.S. Forest Service. 1997. Isoetes louisianensis photo card.

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