Isoetes hyemalis - D.F. Brunton
Winter Quillwort
Other English Common Names: Evergreen Quillwort
Other Common Names: evergreen quillwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Isoetes hyemalis D.F. Brunton (TSN 507545)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147799
Element Code: PPISO01180
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Lycophyta Isoetopsida Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoetes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Isoetes hyemalis
Taxonomic Comments: The taxonomy of this species is difficult because as a genus Isoetes lack morphological variation (Taylor and Hickey 1992) caused by conserved morphology and compounded by the presence of homoplasy and allopolyploid speciation (Hoot et al. 2004). Recent molecular work indicates I. hyemalis is an allotetraploid species that arose from an interspecific hybridization event. The parental species of I. hyemalis are unknown, possibly extinct or undiscovered, as the analyzed DNA sequences of I. hyemalis matched no known diploid Isoetes species (Hoot et al. 2004). It has also been suggested that, because it is an allotetraploid, different populations might contain different parental species and I. hyemalis might actually encompass more than one species (W. Carl Taylor, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 2005).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Feb2006
Global Status Last Changed: 19Jul1993
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Currently known from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, with most sites located near the Fall Line. The species' abundance and distribution may be greater than is currently known.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S1?), North Carolina (S2S3), South Carolina (S1), Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Area of Occupancy: 3-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Since populations occur in both depression wetlands and streams, the area of occupancy could be measured by linear distance of occupancy as well.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: At least 20 occurrences thought extant. North Carolina: 10 extant occurrences. Virginia: 4 extant occurrences and R.D. Bray (Old Dominion Univ.) has related the presence of several additional populations. South Carolina: Only 2 vouchered, extant locations known from collections but this species has not been extensively surveyed in South Carolina. Georgia: 2 extant occurrences but this species has not been extensively surveyed in Georgia.

Population Size Comments: At least 12,000 individuals with many more in populations of undocumented size.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: At least 7 with good viability. North Carolina has 1 excellent/good population, but the status is unknown for many occurrences. Virginia has 1 excellent, 2 good, and 1 good-to-fair estimated viability. There is only 1 population that is confirmed to be in fair viability in South Carolina and only 1 or 2 with fair viability in Georgia.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Channelization of waterways is a threat in North Carolina. Drainage or alteration of the hydrology of depression wetlands is a threat for one Virginia population

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: In North Carolina this species has been increasingly subjected to development pressures. For example, channelization as a result of the establishment of rural residential housing adjacent to the type locality has severely impacted this population (D. Brunton, pers. comm., 2005). However, in the rest of the range short-term trends are unknown. Virginia populations have not been revisited since first documentation in early 1990s. Logging in and around depression wetlands may have led to declines at one site according to one biologist's notes, but this is highly speculative and no hard data exist. Similarly, the two Georgia populations have not been revisited since 1997.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Age to maturity, reproductive frequency, and dispersal capability such that extirpated populations are unlikely to become reestablished through natural recolonization (unaided by humans) has not been well documented.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Brunton et al. (1994) notes that Isoetes hyemalis is typically found in shallow, running, high quality, cool waters under dense shade. However, they noted a population persisted in an area where the forest cover was virtually destroyed by a windstorm that resulted in increased siltation, reduced shade and likely increased water temperatures.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, NC, SC, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Houston (01069)
GA Miller (13201), Seminole (13253)
SC Beaufort (45013), Colleton (45029)
VA Charles City (51036), Charlotte (51037), Dinwiddie (51053), Halifax (51083), Isle of Wight (51093), Mecklenburg (51117), New Kent (51127), Southampton (51175)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lower James (02080206)+
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102)+, Nottoway (03010201)+, Blackwater (03010202)+, Salkehatchie (03050207)+, Spring (03130010)+, Chipola (03130012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An aquatic perennial fern ally with numerous, slender, evergreen leaves, 2.3-2.7 dm long. Spores mature in late June and July.

Diagnostic Characteristics: An obligate submergent/amphibious species. Rhizome perennial, 2-lobed corm, leaves evergreen, numerous (30-105) arising from center of the corm and expanding outwards, 23-27 cm long, slender (<1mm at midpoint), tapering to a sharp, slim tip, weakly cross-septate and quadrangular in cross-section with four equal-sized air chambers and a central vascular bundle. Lingule small (<2.0 mm), lanceolate-triangular with obtuse tip. Sporangia produced on basal adaxial face of sporophylls, oval. Megaspores grayish-white, round,, 400-(522)-580 ým, ornamented by dense pattern of low irregular crests and thin tubercles, spores mature June-July. Cytology 2n = 44 (Brunton et al. 1994).

Brunton et al. (1994) also note the differences between Isoetes hyemalis and several other Isoetes species. Briefly, specimens of I. hyemalis give the appearance of large, very narrow-leaved I. engelmannii or I. carolinana, with an elongated, somewhat flattened rhizome. SEM of microspores also show distinct differences between I. hyemalis and I. engelmannii, I. caroliniana, I. riparia, and I. piedmontana. In live specimens, I. hyemalis lacked peripheral fiber bundles that were observed in a population of I. carolinana.

Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Most commonly in shallow, running water in creeks, sloughs, and along densely shaded river shores in deciduous and mixed swamp forests. Cool, slightly acidic to circumneutral water is typical of these habitats (Brunton et al. 1994). One Virginia population consists of plants in a cluster of five semi-open, clayey depression wetlands on a relatively flat, upland drainage divide
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Isoetes hyemalis should have 1000+ plants occurring in a high to good quality waterway.

Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Isoetes hyemalis should have between 101 - 1000 plants occurring in a high to good quality waterway
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Isoetes hyemalis should have between 51 -100 plants in a good quality waterway. Higher numbers of plants in lower quality waters should be ranked here. And conversely, <50 plants in a high-quality waterway should be ranked here with an explanatory comment.

Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Isoetes hyemalis should have <50 plants occurring in a poor quality waterway with severe impacts from nearby development, invasive non-native plants, or timbering. Fewer than 10 plants occurring in high quality waters should be ranked as C.
Justification: Specifications are based on the known occurrences of Isoetes hyemalis. These specifications should be considered provisional until more information about population dynamics becomes available.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 31Jan2006
Author: North Carolina Natural Heritage Program
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Mason, J. Townsend, P. McMillan, and J. M. Moffett
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): S. Mason, J. Townsend, P. McMillan, and J. M. Moffett

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Brunton, D. F. 2006. North Carolina Isoetes Specimens. Unpublished report.

  • Brunton, D.F., D.M. Britton, and W.C. Taylor. 1994. Isoetes hyemalis, sp. nov. (Isoetaceae): A new quillwort from the southeastern United States. Castanea 59(1): 12-21.

  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Hoot, S.B., N.S. Napier, and C.W. Taylor. 2004. Revealing unknown or extinct lineages with Isoetes (Isoetaceae) using DNA sequences from hybrids. American Journal of Botany 91(6): 899-904.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Keener, B. R., A.R. Diamond, L. J. Davenport, P. G. Davison, S. L. Ginzbarg, C. J. Hansen, C. S. Major, D. D. Spaulding, J. K. Triplett, and M. Woods. 2016. Alabama Plant Atlas. [S.M. Landry and K.N. Campbell (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research. University of South Florida]. University of West Alabama, Livingston, Alabama. Online. Available: http://floraofalabama.org/Default.aspx

  • Taylor, W.C. and R.J. Hickey. 1992. Habitat, evolution, and speciation in Isoetes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 613-622.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

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