Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus - Wilken & Fletcher
Holy Ghost Ipomopsis
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus Wilken & Fletcher (TSN 503189)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145135
Element Code: PDPLM060S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Phlox Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Solanales Polemoniaceae Ipomopsis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Aug2009
Global Status Last Changed: 10Apr1991
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico and restricted to a single canyon population with relatively few individuals. Threats include recreation, fire suppression, invasive plants, road maintenance, and spruce budworm control.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States New Mexico (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (23Mar1994)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Within the Santa Fe National Forest in the Sangre de Cristos Mountains of northern New Mexico.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from only one population (USFWS 2008). Attempts are being made to establish populations at three new sites but it will take years to determine if these populations will become successfully established (USFWS 2008).

Population Size Comments: Population size has fluctuated considerably, ranging from a high of 2047 in 1996 to a low of 240 in 2001 (USFWS 2008). From 2003 to 2008, estimates ranged from 618 to 852 (USFWS 2008). Estimating population size is difficult because Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus grows as a rosette until conditions are favorable; its rosettes are indistinguishable from rosettes of the sympatric and more common I. aggregata (USFWS 2008).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat threatened by heavy recreation use, campground and vacation homes development. Fire suppression to protect developed sites prevents the creation and maintenance of forest openings and increases forest canopy, potentially leading to catastrophic fire (USFWS 2008). Invasive plants, particularly smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) produce sod-bound areas that appear to exclude Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus (Maschinski 2001; USFWS 2002). Other threats include pesticides and road work. Biological control for spruce budworm includes the widespread aerial broadcast of a bacterium which kills not only the budworm but also other insects that serve as pollinators for Ipomopsis sanct-spiritus (USFWS 2002). Eighty percent of the population occurs along a road, so maintenance or widening activities also pose a threat (USFWS 2002). Climate change is also a potential threat as increased dryness appears to reduce the number of individuals of Ipomopsis sanct-spiritus (USFWS 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Within the Santa Fe National Forest in the Sangre de Cristos Mountains of northern New Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NM

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM San Miguel (35047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Pecos headwaters (13060001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A biennial to short-lived perennial herb with a solitary stem, 3-8 dm tall. The basal leaves form a loose to compact rosette, which dies back when the plant flowers. The pink, tubular flowers are about 2 cm long.
Reproduction Comments: Maschinski (1996) found that Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus needs pollinators for either self- or outcross-fertilization and that fertilization is required to produce fruits (USFWS 2002).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Old field, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Along a roadside and in small woodland clearings beneath Ponderosa pine on steep, south- or southwest-facing slopes. These are open, disturbed areas on a sandy to pebbly limestone conglomerate substrate derived from the Terrero and Espiritu Santo formations. About 2440 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Management should include protecting the current population from vandalism, educating visitors to the canyon, preventing introduction of invasive plants, protecting the habitat from catastrophic wildfire, and providing small areas of recurrent disturbance as habitat for the species (USFWS 2002). Save and replace topsoil and seeds if road work is done (USFWS 2002). Control invasive plants by hand rather than with herbicides (USFWS 2002). Avoid spraying BT which impacts pollinators of Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus (USFWS 2008). Disperse seeds from more fecund to less fecund areas of the canyon, selectively harvest timber, and remove herbaceous competitors (Maschinski 2001). Implement prescribed low-intensity fire (USFWS 2002). Reintroduce Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus in the upper Pecos River Basin (USFWS 2002).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Jan1993
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Russell, C., rev. DeBruin/Maybury (1996), rev. A. Tomaino (2009)
Management Information Edition Date: 17Aug2009
Management Information Edition Author: Tomaino, A.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Maschinski, J. 1996. Seed germination and pollination requirements of Holy Ghost ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus). Pages 167-170 In: Maschinski, J., H.D. Hammond, and L. Holter, tech. eds. Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants: Proceedings of the Second Conference; 1995 September 11-14; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

  • Maschinski, J. 2001. Extinction risk of Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus in Holy Ghost Canyon with and without management intervention. Pages 206-212 In: Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference. Proceedings of the Third Conference; 2000 September 25-28; Flagstaff, AZ. RMRS-P-23. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. [http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p023/rmrs_p023_206_212.pdf]

  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Determination of endangered status for the plant Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus (holy ghost ipomopsis). Federal Register 59(56): 13836-13841.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2002. Holy Ghost Ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. [http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/020926.pdf]

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Holy Ghost Ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus) 5-Year Review. New Mexico Ecological Services Field Office, Albuquerque. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2007.pdf (accessed 2009).

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