Ipomopsis polyantha - (Rydb.) V. Grant
Pagosa Skyrocket
Other English Common Names: Pagosa Skyrocket
Synonym(s): Gilia polyantha var. polyantha
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ipomopsis polyantha (Rydb.) V. Grant (TSN 31215)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.902294
Element Code: PDPLM060T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Phlox Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Solanales Polemoniaceae Ipomopsis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Weber, W.A., and R.C. Wittmann. 2012b. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, a field guide to the vascular plants, fourth edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B12WEB01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ipomopsis polyantha
Taxonomic Comments: This is the record for the narrow sense of Ipomopsis polyantha that is endemic to Colorado. "Reports of this species occurring in Arizona and New Mexico by the PLANTS National Database and State floras actually pertain to the two species that were formerly treated as varieties of Ipomopsis polyantha (Anderson 2004 cited by USFWS 2011).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Aug2012
Global Status Last Changed: 23Oct1995
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Known from about 250,000 individuals in a very small area of southern Colorado. The plants are subject to a high degree of threat from development, road maintenance activities, and overgrazing. The Pagosa skyrocket is restricted to specific soils that occupy a very narrow area.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (27Jul2011)
Comments on USESA: The name Ipomopsis polyantha is used by USFWS (2004) for the plants endemic to Colorado sometimes considered I. polyantha var. polyantha, excluding the 'brachysiphon' and 'whitingii' plants included in I. polyantha by Kartesz (1999).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known from Archuleta County in southern Colorado. Estimated range is 48 square kilometers, calculated in 2008 by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The current area occupied by the mapped occurrences is 446 acres.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 2 principal occurrences documented in the Colorado Natural Heritage Program database. All of the occurrences have been observed fairly recently (2012). The USFS Conservation Assessment documents 3 occurrences (Anderson 2004).

Population Size Comments: Estimated sum of individuals from the 2 documented occurrences is 250,000 based on extrapolation of transect counts. Ocular estimates in 2009 document roughly 2400 individuals. More are though to occur on private lands not surveyed. Anderson 2004 indicates that numbers vary somewhat with conditions at individual sites, for example increasing after fire.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are 2 occurrences with an A or B rank.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Residential and commercial developments are considered to be the primary threats to the species at this time (Anderson 2004, Rondeau et al. 2011). The species is also threatened by livestock grazing, exotic species invasion, right-of-way management, effects of small population size, recreation, wildflower gathering, global climate change, and pollution. The entire global range of I. polyantha is planned for residential development in the Archuleta County Community Plan. Ipomopsis polyantha does not tolerate livestock grazing and is thus largely limited to highway rights-of-way. Given the serious nature of the threats to I. polyantha, it is among the most endangered species in Colorado (Anderson 2004).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: City of Pagosa Springs is at the center of the known range of this species. In all likelihood, some populations have been lost as this city has grown (Anderson 2004). Preliminary monitoring plots were established at six sites in 2006, additional sites were added in 2007. One site, known as 'County Barn' is still being monitored (Kurzel 2009); demographic trends are inconclusive at this time, however, the species is likely a short-lived perennial or biennial. Grazing has degraded some occurrences (USFWS, 2004).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: This species' long term trend is unknown, however, it seems that the expansion of the town of Pagosa Springs in recent years is the most likely event affecting the trend of this species. At least one historical location is extirpated, and some have been substantially degraded (USFWS, 2004).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Plants are sensitive to habitat disturbances and grazing (Anderson 1988, Anderson 2004). It is suggested that this species is a stress-tolerant ruderal and that it does require some disturbance, but not annually. This species has been found persisting in junk yards, on road cuts where it has colonized exposed shales, and has been documented to increase in years after a fire (Anderson 2004). It also inhabits climax vegetation, including Pinus ponderosa forests and pine/juniper/oak communities (Anderson 2004). It is believed that this species may be self incompatible and an obligate outcrosser, however, there is some evidence that when stressed the species can resort to self-pollination producing few seeds and fruits (Anderson 2004). Further, it is believed that unlike other members of the genus, Ipomopsis polyantha is a generalist and is pollinated by a range of insects, most small to medium bees and bee flies (Anderson 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The Pagosa ipomopsis is restricted to a soil type referred to as Mancos Shale. These soils are described as heavy, gray, fine-textured, and clayey. The Mancos Shales are found in a large band through Archuleta County from northwest to southeast, however, this species is found on these soils on of the Upper Cretaceous Period and these outcrops are only found in a narrow area. These outcrops of late Cretaceous Period, Mancos Shale are found from Durango to Pagosa Springs north to Hinsdale County, Colorado and south through Pagosa Springs into New Mexico (Anderson 2004).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known from Archuleta County in southern Colorado. Estimated range is 48 square kilometers, calculated in 2008 by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Archuleta (08007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Piedra (14080102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, possibly biennial (monocarpic) up to 30 to 60 cm tall, branched near the base with grayish deeply divided leaves with linear leaflets. The inflorescenses occur along the stem in the leaf axils and at the top of the stem. The flowers are star-shaped, white, and freckled with magenta.
General Description: Herbaceous biennial, over 20 cm tall.  Flowers are white or with pink highlights, and are located in axillary clusters along the stems and branches.  Corolla is short tubular, and stamens are strongly exserted.  Leaves are pinnatifid or deeply toothed (Spackman et al. 1997).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field
Habitat Comments: In Colorado, on rocky clay soils of the Mancos Shale in the southern San Juan Mountains, typically on road shoulders where the soil has been disturbed. Highest densities are under Pinus ponderosa forests with montane grassland understory (Anderson 2004, Anderson 1988). Associated taxa include: Purshia tridentata, Hymenopappus filifolius, Packera neomexicana, Frasera speciosa, Heterotheca villosa, Rosa woodsii, Artemisia spp., Mahonia repens, and Achnatherum hymenoides. 
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population. As a guideline, EOs are separated by either: 1 mile or more across unsuitable habitat or altered and unsuitable areas; or 2 miles or more across apparently suitable habitat not known to be occupied. Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species. Very little is currently known about this species, and only two occurrences are currently known. When more information is available, the element occurrence specifications for this species should be re-evaluated.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Date: 27Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S., and D. Anderson.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Size: 1000 or more individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. An A-ranked occurrences should be in a natural setting without the presence of significant infrastructure or habitat alterations as is the case in the two known occurrences. Landscape Context: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species. A natural occurrence will probably include some sort of natural disturbance regime, although the nature of the ecological requirements of this species are unknown at this time. Justification: Only two occurrences of this species are known at this time, and both are in unnatural, degraded sites. If other occurrences are discovered, the element occurrence rank specifications should be re-evaluated. Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient.
Good Viability: Size: 100 or more individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover. The plants should be growing on a natural or semi natural substrate, not a road shoulder or other recently created or highly anthropogenically disturbed habitat. Landscape Context: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.
Fair Viability: Size: 10 to 100 individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance). Large populations on road shoulders should be considered C-ranked occurrences due to their highly altered and unnatural ecological setting. Landscape Context: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.
Poor Viability: Size: Less than 10 individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance. Landscape context: The surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact. The occurrence has a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and its intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Justification: Justification: EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Aug2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Spackman (1995), rev. L. Morse (1999), rev. Spackman, S. & D. Anderson (2000), rev. Neuhaus, K., J. Handwerk, & S. Spackman Panjabi (2006), rev. Handwerk, J. (2010), rev. Handwerk, J. (2012)
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. SSP (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerfield, J. 2012. The Flora of Colorado. Colorado State University Herbarium. 433 pp.


  • Anderson, D. G. 2004. Ipomopsis polyantha (Rydberg) V. Grant (Pagosa ipomopsis): a technical conservation assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/ipomopsispolyantha.pdf (accessed December 21, 2004)

  • Anderson, J. 1988. Status report for Ipomopsis polyantha var polyantha. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO.

  • Anderson, J. 1988. Status report for Ipomopsis polyantha var polyantha. Unpublished report prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO.

  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Colorado Native Plant Society, Estes Park, Colorado. 73 pp.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2005. The Second Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: Evening Presentation Minutes.

  • Isberg, Karl. 1992. Rare plant species found south of town. Pagosa Springs Sun. Vol. 83 no. 40. Pagosa Springs, Archuleta County, Co 84147.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kearney, T.H., R.H. Peebles, and collaborators. 1951. Arizona flora. 2nd edition with Supplement (1960) by J.T. Howell, E. McClintock, and collaborators. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1085 pp.

  • Kearney, T.H., and R.H. Peebles. 1943. Gilia multiflora Nutt. and its nearest relatives. Madroņo 7(2): 59-63.

  • Kurzel, B. 2009. Unpublished report on Ipomopsis polyantha monitoring.

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • Porter, J. M., L. A. Johnson, and D. Wilken. 2003. Phylogenetics and Systematics of Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae) I: Phylogenetic Estimates using Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences. Manuscript to be published in Aliso. 62pp.

  • Porter, J.M., L.A. Johnson, and D. Wilken. 2010. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae): Relationships and divergence times estimated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 35(1):181-200.

  • Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists. 2009. RARE Imperiled Plants of Colorado, a traveling art exhibition. Exhibition catalogue developed by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Steamboat Art Museum.

  • Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague. 2011. The state of Colorado's biodiversity 2011. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Ipomopsis ployantha. 8 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa Skyrocket) as Endangered Throughout Its Range, and Listing Penstemon debilis (Parachute Beardtougue) and Phacelia submutica (DeBeque Phacelia) as Threatened Throughout Their Range. Proposed Rule. Federal Register 75(120):35721-35746.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2011. Determination of Endangered Status for Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa Skyrocket) and Threatened Status for Penstemon debilis (Parachute Beardtongue) and Phacelia submutica. Federal Register 76(145): 45054-45075.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2005. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 70(90):24870-24934. May 11, 2005.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.

  • Weber, W.A., and R.C. Wittmann. 2012b. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, a field guide to the vascular plants, fourth edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.

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