Illicium parviflorum - Michx. ex Vent.
Yellow Anisetree
Other Common Names: yellow anisetree
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Illicium parviflorum Michx. ex Vent. (TSN 18084)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153827
Element Code: PDILL01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
Image 12022

Public Domain

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Illiciales Illiciaceae Illicium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Illicium parviflorum
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species, one of few in family; one genus, two species in the southeastern United States, the other species (I. floridanum) more widespread than this species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 04Jun1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A species with narrow habitat requirements and a restricted range: it is currently known from fewer than 20 occurrences in 5 central Florida counties (Polk, Marion, Lake, Volusia, and Seminole). It is threatened by habitat destruction, alteration of the required hydrology, and over collection for the horticulture trade. There are reports that this species occurred in Georgia, however, it is now known that it never occurred there natively. It is widely used as an ornamental landscaping plant in the southeast.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2), Georgia (SH)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Lake, Polk, Marion, Seminole and Volusia Counties, Florida. Extent of occurrence calculated to be approximately 7,750 sq. km. based on NatureServe Element Occurrence data (2015).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The area of occupancy was calculated to be 18, 4 x 4 sq.km. grid cells, based on 17 occurrences in NatureServe element occurrence data (2015).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: It is currently (as of 10/97) known from fewer than 20 occurrences in 5 central Florida counties (Polk, Marion, Lake, Volusia, and Seminole). This species has been reported in Georgia, however, it is known that it never occurred there (Chafin 2007, FNAI 2000), although it is widely used in landscaping (Chafin 2007). As of 2015, there were 17 occurrences for Florida (NatureServe Element Occurrence Data).

Population Size Comments: Can be a frequent understory tree in some stretches of floodplain community. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (2000) reports that this species can be dense in the understory where it occurs in the five conservation areas where it is known.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat destruction and over harvest are primary threats (Buckley 2012). Drainage or cutting, particularly clear-cutting, would be detrimental (Kral 1983).  It is also believed that in-breeding depression may be driving low seed set and low seed viability (Buckley 2012).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Cannot tolerate clear-cutting or disruption of stream hydrology. Buckley (2012) determined in his Master's work that low seed set and viability are likely due to in-breeding depression, and not self-incompatibility as previously hypothesized.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Lake, Polk, Marion, Seminole and Volusia Counties, Florida. Extent of occurrence calculated to be approximately 7,750 sq. km. based on NatureServe Element Occurrence data (2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Orange (12095), Polk (12105), Seminole (12117), Volusia (12127)
GA Bryan (13029)*, Chatham (13051)*, Liberty (13179)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Canoochee (03060203)+*, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+*, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An irregularly branched, evergreen shrub or small understory tree, sometimes reaching 7 m tall. Flowers are borne singly from the leaf axils; sepals and petals are similar, yellow, 3-5 mm long, and rounded.
Technical Description: Trunks single or several from the root, erect or leaning outward, the bark grayish-brown, smoothish, the fresh wood, twigs, leaves and flowers smelling of licorice. Branching slender and forking, the newer shoots slender, smooth, greenish-brown or tan, leafy only toward the tips. Leaves alternate in close spirals, persistent, spreading-ascending on greenish, grooved, slender petioles 2-3 cm long, the blades oblanceolate or elliptic, the largest mostly 10-15 cm long, leathery, acute but blunt and rounded-tipped, the margins entire, very slightly emarginate, the base narrowly cuneate or attenuate, the upper surface a dark, glossy green, the lower surface paler, finely pale gland-dotted, only the midrib prominently raised. Flowers 1-few, set in the terminal clusters of leaves on slender, pale, greenish spreading or erect stalks to 3 cm long, symmetrical, about 2 cm across. Sepals 3-6, ovate, greenish, under 1 cm long. Petals numerous, ovate or oblong, about 1 cm long, yellowish, spreading. Stamens numerous, ca 3 mm long, the filaments broad as the anthers, linear, somewhat flattened, spreading to form a ring; anther sacs 2, short-oblong. Carpels numerous, forming a ring, at first erect, tapering to narrow, outward pointing tips. Follicles of fruit spreading like the rays of a star, the whole cluster about 2 cm broad, splitting along the upper edge each to release a single brown shiny seed (Kral, 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Illicium parviflorum may be characterized by its leaf tips which are blunt rather than sharply acute or acuminate (as in the more widespread I. floridanum), by its smaller, greenish-yellow flowers, and by its somewhat smaller fruit (Kral, 1983).
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Reproduction Comments: No pollination information for this species, but pollinators recorded for the genus include beetles (Knuth 1908) and primitive families of flies (Kevan 1984).
Ecology Comments: Restricted to habitats with continually moist soils, but "much more drought tolerant than I. floridanum" (Godfrey 1986).
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Sandy loams or sandy peat mucks in hydric hammock and floodplain swamps along relatively large spring-fed streams and in bayheads with Chamaecyparis thyoides, Agarista populifolia, Sabal palmetto, Sabal minor, Rhapidophyllum hystrix, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris. Also in karst areas, on continually moist soil.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: LANDSCAPING
Economic Comments: Often cultivated; may be overcollected.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Jun2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Oliver, L.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Jun1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): UPDATE M. STOVER TNC-HO (2/95)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Buckley, N. E. 2012. Mating system biology of the Florida native plant: Illicium parviflorum. Master's thesis, University of Tennessee. Available at:  http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/1310 (Accessed June 8, 2015).

  • Chafin, L. 2007a. Factsheet on Illicium floridanum. Online at: http://www.georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/accounts/plants/illicium_floridanum.pdf (accessed June 8, 2015).

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kevan, P.G. 1984. Pollination by animals and angiosperm biosystematics. In W.F. Grant (ed.), Plant biosystematics: Symposium, 271-292. Academic Press Canada.

  • Knuth, P. 1908. Handbook for flower pollination. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Taylor, W.K. 1992. The guide to Florida wildflowers. Taylor Publishing, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • Taylor, Walter Kingsley. 1992. The Guide to Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Zomlefer, W. B. 1994. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 430pp.

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