Ilex collina - Alexander
Long-stalk Holly
Other English Common Names: Hill Holly
Other Common Names: longstalk holly
Synonym(s): Nemopanthus collinus (Alexander) R. Clark
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ilex collina Alexander (TSN 27993)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154417
Element Code: PDAQU01080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Holly Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Celastrales Aquifoliaceae Ilex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ilex collina
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Dec2008
Global Status Last Changed: 14Mar1988
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: There are 37 recent sites in five states, occurring in a limited range of high-elevation streamside habitats. Total population size is estimated to be a few thousand individuals.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (S1), North Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S1), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species occurs in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia. West Virginia: Nicholas, Pocahontas, Randolph Cos., with largest population on Cheat River; Virginia, Giles Co; mountains of northeast North Carolina; Tennessee: Sevier Co.; Georgia: Towns Co.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ilex collina is regionally restricted and occurrences are noted for five states. Approximately 37 occurrences are believed extant and 1 is historical.

Population Size Comments: The estimated abundance is 4000, but may range from 2500 to 5500 plants; this was derived by substituting the number 300 for the terms "hundreds" and "a few hundred widespread" five times when totalling the subpopulations noted in the records.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Ilex collina has a somwehat limited distribution, making it vulnerable to land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Threats are related to timbering and changes in hydrology of local streams and wetlands. Although the habitat lends itself to many other uses, much of the habitat in the element's range is to some degree protected.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Currently stable. The majority of all occurrences are extant. However, continued loss of riparian habitat will likely reduce the number of extant occurrences.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This is a generally riparian species, and occurrences can be affected by changes in hydrology upstream or downstream (impoundment).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species occurs in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia. West Virginia: Nicholas, Pocahontas, Randolph Cos., with largest population on Cheat River; Virginia, Giles Co; mountains of northeast North Carolina; Tennessee: Sevier Co.; Georgia: Towns Co.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, NC, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Towns (13281)
NC Ashe (37009), Haywood (37087), Swain (37173), Watauga (37189)
VA Giles (51071)*, Grayson (51077), Tazewell (51185)*
WV Greenbrier (54025), Nicholas (54067), Pocahontas (54075), Randolph (54083), Webster (54101)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Tygart Valley (05020001)+*, Cheat (05020004)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Middle New (05050002)+*, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Gauley (05050005)+, Elk (05050007)+
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+*, Pigeon (06010106)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Deciduous shrub or tree with small yellow-green flowers and stalked red berries.
General Description: Alternate branched deciduous shrub or tree up to 4 m tall with elliptic leaves, small stalked yellow-green flowers, and stalked red berries. Flowers and berries appear to occur individually or as groups of just a few along the length of a twig.
Technical Description: Deciduous shrub or tree 3-4 m tall. Branches spreading, bark grey and smooth; young twigs are light green and glabrous. Leaves broadly elliptic to obovate, acuminate, base cuneate, glabrous above and glabrous or sparingly hairy beneath, margins finely serrate, teeth glands tipped, 5-8 cm long,6.5 cm wide, petioles 10-12 mm long. Flowers small, 4-parted, yellow-green, in clusters, on slender pedicels 10-15 mm long; sepals ovate, glabrous; petals oval, slightly fused at base; drupes red 7-8 mm in diameter (one form, Van Trompii, has yellow fruit (Brooks, 1940)); pyrenes 4-5, strongly ridged on back, 5-6 mm long (Porter, 1991; Strausbaugh and Core, 1977).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Fruits on 10-15 mm long pedicels.
Reproduction Comments: Ilex collina reproduces sexually; flowering in May. The plant is dioecious (Ammons and Core, 1945).
Ecology Comments: North Carolina -- Ilex collina occurs in tall shrub thickets and has been noted on one western slope in a creek valley. Plants associated with this species include Aronia sp., Carex trisperma, Epilobium leptophyllum, Kalmia sp., Lilium grayi, Lonicera canadensis, L. dioica, Rhododendron sp., Salix sp., Saxifraga pensylvanica, and Vaccinium sp. (NCNHP, 1996).

Virginia -- This species occurs along bog borders, beaver ponds, mucky ground, hydric peat, and oligotrophic saturated wetlands. It grows in sun and has been noted on a 3% slope with an eastern aspect. The elevations for these occurrences ranged from 3000-4815 ft. The generalized communities have been described as sphagnum/sedge bogs and open shrub near hardwood forest and including some spruce. It is associated with the following plants: Acer rubrum, Betula alleghaniensis, B. lenta, Glyceria melicaria, Osmunda cinnamomea, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, Rhododendron arborescens, R. maximum, Tsuga canadensis, and Viburnum cassinoides (VANHP, 1995).

West Virginia -- This species in noted in wetland areas (bog, marsh, and swamp), river edges, high energy and/or scoured (rock sand and cobble) riverbanks, sandstone soils, and northern hardwoods. Elevations for occurrences ranged from 2150 to 4500 ft. Associated plant species included Acer rubrum, Aconitum uncinatum, Agrostis perennans, Betula alleghaniensis, B. lenta, Brachyelytrum erectum, Calamagrostis canadensis, Cicuta maculata, Clintonia borealis, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Fagus grandifolia, Galium obtusum, Hamamelis virginiana, Ilex montana, Kalmia sp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Maianthemum canadense, Physocarpus opulifolius, Picea rubens, Quercus rubra, Rhododendron aborescens, Solidago graminifolia, Thalictrum polygamum, and Tsuga canadensis (WVNHP, 1996).

Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Ilex collina occurs in high elevation oligotrophic wetlands along streams, and streamheads from 2120-4815 ft. It often occurs in association with Tsuga canadensis, Betula lenta, Ilex montana, Picea rubens, and Rhododendron maximum.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: There is no known economic use.
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Special considerations should be given to hydrology as this element occurs along streamsides. Stewardship should include rerouting trails and informing visitors on protecting this element in high use areas of State and National parks.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve design should include adequate buffer area surrounding occurrences to allow for management activities including removal of exotic plant species. Any preserve should be in an area protected from changes in hydrology.
Management Requirements: No management requirements were identified.
Monitoring Requirements: Sites that have not been visited within the last 5 years should be revisited.
Management Research Programs: No management research programs were identified.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Jul1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ormes, M., and Morse L.E. (1983); rev. D. Walton (1996), rev. L. Morse (2003), minor rev. K. Gravuer (2008)
Management Information Edition Date: 23Jul1996
Management Information Edition Author: Walton, D. West Virginia Heritage Program, Elkins, WV 26241-0067 (304) 637-0245

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alexander, Edward J. 1941. Two new species from the southern Appalachians. Castanea. 6:30-32.

  • Ammons, N., and E.L. Core. 1945. The Hollies of West Virginia. Castanea 10: 57-60.

  • Baas, P. 1984. Vegetative Anatomy and the Taxonomic Status of Ilex collina and Nemopanthus (Aquifoliaceae). J. Arn. Arb. 65: 243-250.

  • Brooks, A.B. 1936. A new holly for West Virginia. Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club 1: 83-85.

  • Brooks, M. 1940. A new form of Ilex longipes Chapman. Castanea 5(2): 15-16.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Porter, D.M. 1991. Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceeding of a Symposium. Coordinated by Karen Terwilliger. Nongame and Endangered Species Program, Virginia Dept. of Game and Inland Fisheries. The MacDonald and Woodward Publishing Co. Blacksburg, VA.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • Taylor, O. Scott. Ilex collina Research Proposal submitted to NC Plant Conservation Program, Raleigh, NC. from ScottTaylor, M.S. Candidate, Appalachian State University.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2015.

  • Woods, F. 1951. The status of Ilex collina. Castanea 16: 126-127.

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