Ictiobus cyprinellus - (Valenciennes, 1844)
Bigmouth Buffalo
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ictiobus cyprinellus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844) (TSN 163956)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101772
Element Code: AFCJC07020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Ictiobus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ictiobus cyprinellus
Taxonomic Comments: Natural hybridization with Ictiobus bubalus was reported by Johnson and Minckley (Copeia 1969:198-200). See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (18Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S2S3), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S4), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S4), Ontario (S4), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):SC,NAR
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Hudson Bay basin (Nelson River drainage), Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Ontario to Saskatchewan and Montana, and south to Louisiana; basin; and Saskatchewan (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been introduced in Leaf River, Mississippi, and possibly in impoundments in North Carolina, Arizona, and California (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is fairly common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable. See Goodchild (1990) for information on status in Canada.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Hudson Bay basin (Nelson River drainage), Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Ontario to Saskatchewan and Montana, and south to Louisiana; basin; and Saskatchewan (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been introduced in Leaf River, Mississippi, and possibly in impoundments in North Carolina, Arizona, and California (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NCexotic, ND, NE, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
WV Hancock (54029), Jackson (54035), Mason (54053), Tyler (54095)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Upper Fox (04030201), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)*, Lake Erie (04120200)
05 Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Muskingum (05040004)*, Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Tippecanoe (05120106), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Clinch (06010205), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Blue Earth (07020009), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004)*, North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002)*, Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006)*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211)*, Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201)*, Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Upper Missouri (10030101), Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Marias (10030203), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Whitewater (10050011), Lower Milk (10050012), Frenchman (10050013), Beaver (10050014), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), Lake Sakakawea (10110101), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Lower Heart (10130203), Lower Cannonball (10130206), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003)*, Nishnabotna (10240004)*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), West Nodaway (10240009)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), Lower Republican (10250017), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lower Osage (10290111)*, Upper Gasconade (10290201), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Gar-Peace (11030010), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian (11090204), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lake Texoma (11130210), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Sabine Lake (12040201)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: This robust fish is dull gray to brownish olive with green and copper reflections. The fins are brown or black, and the dorsal fin is long and sickle shaped. The mouth is not oriented downward but instead is at the front of the snout. Maximum length is around 40 inches (102 cm).
Reproduction Comments: Bigmouth buffalo often occur in schools. Spawning occurs in spring or (in the northern part of the range) early summer, often with seasonal flooding. Adults may migrate long distances upstream prior to spawning. Spawning females may attract multiple males that may thrash and tumble at the water surface. Eggs hatch in 1-2 weeks. Individuals become sexually mature in 1 (south) to 10 or more (north) years (Becker 1983).
Ecology Comments: Has schooling tendency.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes the main channels, pools, backwaters, and oxbows of small to large sluggish rivers; also bayous, reservoirs, and lakes. This fish is tolerant of low oxygen and high temperature. It spawns in shallow water of streams and flooded marshes. Eggs sink and adhere to vegetation or other objects.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly planktonic and bottom invertebrates (Scott and Crossman 1973)
Length: 89 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Large Suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 20 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance. For example, individual blue suckers may move more than 160 km between spawning and nonspawning habitats; these widely separated locations are part of the same occurrence.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Occurrences are separated at major confluences. "Major confluences" may be subjectively defined, but separations should result in occurrences that represent population units whose viability potentially may be ranked as good or excellent (in other words, occurrences should not be so small that the best of them would never be expected to persist over the long term on their own).
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 20 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 11Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are larger than 40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • COSEWIC status report on the Bigmouth Buffalo

  • Goodchild, C. D. 1990. Status of the bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:87-97.

  • Johnson, R. P. 1963. Studies on the life history and ecology of the bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus (Valenciennes). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 20(6):1397-1429.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, 2008. Fish Species of Saskatchewan.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Species at Risk, 2007. Government of Canada. Ictiobus cyprinellus.


References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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