Icterus galbula - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Baltimore Oriole
Other English Common Names: Baltimore oriole
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Icterus galbula (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 179083)
French Common Names: oriole de Baltimore
Spanish Common Names: Bolsero de Baltimore
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100447
Element Code: ABPBXB9190
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
Image 7649

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Icteridae Icterus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Icterus galbula
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly considered conspecific with I. bullockii under the name I. galbula (Northern Oriole) but resplit into separate species by AOU (1995). See AOU (1995, 1998) for a brief summary of the bases for the split.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3B), Arkansas (S4B), Colorado (S1B), Connecticut (S5B), Delaware (S4B), District of Columbia (S1B,S3N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4B), Iowa (S5B,S5N), Kansas (S5B), Kentucky (S4S5B), Louisiana (S4B), Maine (S2S3N,S5B), Maryland (S5B), Massachusetts (S5B), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNRB), Montana (S4B), Nebraska (S5), New Hampshire (S5B), New Jersey (S4B), New York (S5B), North Carolina (S3B,S3N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S2S4), Pennsylvania (S5B), Rhode Island (S5B), South Carolina (SNRB,SNRN), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S4B), Vermont (S5B), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5B), Wisconsin (S5B)
Canada Alberta (S4B), British Columbia (S3?B), Manitoba (S3S4B), New Brunswick (S3B,S3M), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (S2S3B), Ontario (S4B), Prince Edward Island (S1B), Quebec (S4B), Saskatchewan (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, western Ontario, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, central Maine, southern New Brunswick, and central Nova Scotia south to eastern Texas, central regions of Gulf coast states except Florida (accidental), north-central Georgia, western South Carolina, central North Carolina, central Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware, and west to the western edge of the Great Plains (AOU 1998). Range during the northern winter extends from Nayarit and Veracruz (casually from coastal California and Sonora) south through Middle America to northern Colombia, northern Venezuela, and Trinidad, regularly in small numbers in the Atlantic states north to Virginia, in the Greater Antilles east to the Virgin Islands, and casually elsewhere in eastern North America (AOU 1998). This species migrates regularly through the southeastern and south-central United States and northeastern Mexico, and in coastal California, rarely through the northern Bahama Islands and Yucatan Peninsula, and casually elsewhere in western North America (AOU 1998).

Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a nonsignificant decline averaging 0.09% per year for the period 1966-1993 (Peterjohn et al. 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Breeding range extends from central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, western Ontario, northern Michigan, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, central Maine, southern New Brunswick, and central Nova Scotia south to eastern Texas, central regions of Gulf coast states except Florida (accidental), north-central Georgia, western South Carolina, central North Carolina, central Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware, and west to the western edge of the Great Plains (AOU 1998). Range during the northern winter extends from Nayarit and Veracruz (casually from coastal California and Sonora) south through Middle America to northern Colombia, northern Venezuela, and Trinidad, regularly in small numbers in the Atlantic states north to Virginia, in the Greater Antilles east to the Virgin Islands, and casually elsewhere in eastern North America (AOU 1998). This species migrates regularly through the southeastern and south-central United States and northeastern Mexico, and in coastal California, rarely through the northern Bahama Islands and Yucatan Peninsula, and casually elsewhere in western North America (AOU 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Adult males have a black head, upper mantle, wings, and tail, with orange on other upperparts and underparts, shoulders, and the of the outer tail feathers, and a single white wing-bar. Adult females are highly variable, often similar to males, but tend to be more subdued in coloration, with the head and mantle not solidly black (or dark brownish olive than black), and with paler orange underparts and rump, and a plain brownish olive tail. Adults are similar in plumage throughout the year. Immatures in fall and early winter are similar to adult females but are paler overall, lacking black on the head and upperparts. Length is about 9 inches (23 cm).
Reproduction Comments: In most areas, nesting begins in May (or late April in southern locations). Clutch size is 3-6 (commonly 4-5). Incubation, by the female, lats 12-14 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 12-14 days, generally in June oe early July. Yearling males (in their second calendar year) resemble adult females but nevertheless may successfully attract a mate and raise young. This species ejects brown-headed cowbird eggs from the nest (Sealy and Neudorf 1995, Condor 97:369-375).

Ecology Comments: Nonbreeding: usually in groups of 2-5 (rarely 15), in definite home ranges; sometimes large communal roosts (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Most Baltimore orioles migrate north through the southeastern United States in March-April, arrive in the northern states and Canada in April-May; males precede females by a few days. Southward migration begins in late July or early August and continues in the United States through August and September and sometimes later. South-bound migrants arrives in Costa Rica early September, depart by early May (Stiles and Skutch 1989). The species is present in South America mostly October-April (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).

Most individuals from eastern North America probably cross Gulf of Mexico en route to winter range (Rohwer and Manning 1990).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes open woodland, deciduous forest edge, riparian woodland, partly open situations with scattered trees, orchards, and groves of shade trees. In migration and winter this oriole also occurs in humid forest edge, second growth, and scrub; treetop level in coffee and cacao plantations, and savanna groves. Nests are placed in trees, an average of around 25-30 feet (8-9 meters) above ground, usually at the end of a drooping branch.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Invertivore, Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Invertivore, Nectarivore
Food Comments: Gleans insects, especially caterpillars, from trees and shrubs; also eats various fruits (Terres 1980) and nectar (Stiles and Skutch 1989). South America: often feeds in flowering trees (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 34 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Sometimes a pest of citrus crops in the winter range (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Feb2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Williams, L. 1952b. Breeding behavior of the Brewer blackbird. Condor 54:3-47.

  • Willson, M. F. 1966. Breeding ecology of the Yellow-headed Blackbird. Ecological Monographs 36:51-77.

  • Wood, MERRILL. 1979. BIRDS OF PENNSYLVANIA. PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV., UNIVERSITY PARK. 133 PP.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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