Ictalurus furcatus - (Lesueur, 1840)
Blue Catfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840) (TSN 163997)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104990
Element Code: AFCKA01030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Ictalurus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ictalurus furcatus
Taxonomic Comments: See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of recent work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (S4), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (SNA), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SU), Nebraska (S3), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S2S3), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SX), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S5), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SX)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Mississippi River basin from western Pennsylvania to South Dakota and Platte River, southwestern Nebraska, south to the Gulf Coast; Gulf Slope from the Escambia River drainage (where introduced), Alabama and Florida, to the Rio Grande drainage, Texas and New Mexico; Atlantic Slope of Mexico (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been introduced widely outside the native range.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is fairly common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Locally, impoundments have eliminated or reduced some populations. For example, a population in the White River, Missouri, disappeared after construction of Bull Shoals and Table Rock reservoirs (Pflieger 1997).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: In Missouri, stocking of this species in small impoundments has not resulted in the establishment of self-sustaining populations (Pflieger 1997).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Mississippi River basin from western Pennsylvania to South Dakota and Platte River, southwestern Nebraska, south to the Gulf Coast; Gulf Slope from the Escambia River drainage (where introduced), Alabama and Florida, to the Rio Grande drainage, Texas and New Mexico; Atlantic Slope of Mexico (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been introduced widely outside the native range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, COexotic, DCexotic, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MDexotic, MO, MS, NCnative and exotic, NE, NJexotic, NM, OH, OK, ORexotic, PAextirpated, SD, TN, TX, VAexotic, WAexotic, WVextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Mills (19129)*
NM Bernalillo (35001)*, Eddy (35015)*, Guadalupe (35019)*, Sierra (35051)*, Socorro (35053), Valencia (35061)*
OH Clermont (39025), Pickaway (39129)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Savannah (03060106), Conasauga (03150101), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Escatawpa (03170008), Upper Pearl (03180001), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)
05 Lower Monongahela (05020005)*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Ocoee (06020003), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)*, North Fabius (07110002)*, The Sny (07110004)*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Buffalo (08060206)*, Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Lake Pontchartrain (08090202)*, East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301)
10 Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Grand (10280101), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 North Fork White (11010006), Lower Black (11010009), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Neosho (11070204), Lower Canadian (11090204), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), North Galveston Bay (12040203), West Galveston Bay (12040204), Austin-Oyster (12040205), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Jim Ned (12090108), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Bernard (12090401), East Matagorda Bay (12090402), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Central Matagorda Bay (12100401), West Matagorda Bay (12100402), Aransas Bay (12100405), Mission (12100406), Aransas (12100407), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Upper Nueces (12110103), Turkey (12110104), Middle Nueces (12110105), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), San Fernando (12110204), Baffin Bay (12110205), Palo Blanco (12110206), Central Laguna Madre (12110207), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+*, Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Pecos headwaters (13060001)+*, Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001)+*, Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001), Lower Rio Grande (13090002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and early summer at water temperatures of 21-25 C. Adults care for nest until young hatch.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This catfish is characteristic of deep areas of main channels and backwaters of medium to large rivers; it occurs on the bottom during daylight hours in deep areas and moves into swifter water at night to feed. In reservoirs, it occurs in deep water during the day, in the littoral zone at night. It also occurs in some fish-farm ponds. It tolerates salinities up to 22 ppt (Sublette et al. 1990). Eggs are deposited in nests under logs, brush, or riverbank (Manooch 1984); nest prepared by male often in pools or backwaters (Sublette et al. 1990).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Bottom feeder. Eats mostly crustaceans and aquatic insects when young. Later, fishes and large invertebrates become most important (Moyle 1976). Also scavenges.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Feeds mostly at night.
Length: 119 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Large Catfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Use collection/observation points, habitat considerations, and judgment of knowledgeable biologists to determine the area (occupied habitat) that should be mapped as the occurrence. Widely separated points can be included in a single occurrence if there is no reason to suspect the presence of a population disontinuity. Do not extend the occurrence into river segments lacking actual collection/observation points.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: In general, each occupied river segment that is undivided by a barrier should be treated as a single distinct occurrence, regardless of the distance between observation/collection sites. A single occurrence may include multiple tributaries.
Separation Justification: Separation procedure reflects the fact that these fishes regularly move substantial distances (dozens of kilometers or more). Becker (1983) stated that channel catfish may travel hundreds of miles upstream or downstream in rivers.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation procedure is used regardless of habitat suitability.

It is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 02Nov2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catfishes that often are more than 50 cm in length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • EDWARDS, ROBERT J. AND SALVADOR CONTRERAS-BALDERAS. 1991. HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE LOWER RIO GRANDE (RIO BRAVO DEL NORTE), TEXAS AND MEXICO. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 36(2):201-212.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Everhart, W. H. and W. R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks.

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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