Ictalurus punctatus - (Rafinesque, 1818)
Channel Catfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818) (TSN 163998)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106404
Element Code: AFCKA01100
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
Image 1112

© Howard L. Jelks

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Ictalurus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ictalurus punctatus
Taxonomic Comments: Some authors have included I. lupus in this species. The Ictalurus punctatus group in Mexico is in need of revision (Lundberg 1992). See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of recent work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4), New Mexico (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S4), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Native range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River drainage), and Missouri-Mississippi river basins from southern Quebec to southern Manitoba and Montana, south to Gulf of Mexico; possibly also native on Atlantic and Gulf slopes from Susquehanna River to Neuse River, and from Savannah River to Lake Okeechobee, and west to northern Mexico and eastern New Mexico; widely introduced throughout most of the United States(Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable to increase of <25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are still increasing.

Long-term Trend: Increase of >25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Distribution and abundance have greatly increased through introductions.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Native range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River drainage), and Missouri-Mississippi river basins from southern Quebec to southern Manitoba and Montana, south to Gulf of Mexico; possibly also native on Atlantic and Gulf slopes from Susquehanna River to Neuse River, and from Savannah River to Lake Okeechobee, and west to northern Mexico and eastern New Mexico; widely introduced throughout most of the United States(Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FL, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MAexotic, MDexotic, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NCnative and exotic, ND, NE, NHexotic, NJ, NM, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OK, ORexotic, PA, RIexotic, SC, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Catron (35003)*, Chaves (35005), Colfax (35007)*, De Baca (35011), Dona Ana (35013)*, Eddy (35015), Grant (35017)*, Guadalupe (35019), Harding (35021)*, Hidalgo (35023)*, Los Alamos (35028)*, Mora (35033)*, Quay (35037), Rio Arriba (35039)*, Roosevelt (35041)*, San Juan (35045)*, San Miguel (35047)*, Santa Fe (35049)*, Sierra (35051)*, Socorro (35053)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Ausable (02010004)
03 Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Middle Savannah (03060106), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Charlotte Harbor (03100103), Manatee (03100202), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Little (03110204), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Menominee (04030108), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), Lake Huron (04080300), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008)*, Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Lake Erie (04120200), Lower Genesee (04130003), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303)
05 Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Beaver (05030104), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003)*, Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006)*, Upper New (05050001), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115)*, Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Leech Lake (07010102), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Pine (07010105), Crow Wing (07010106), Redeye (07010107), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Castle Rock (07070003)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007)*, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Forked Deer (08010206), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208)*, Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
09 Upper Souris (09010001), Des Lacs (09010002), Lower Souris (09010003), Willow (09010004), Deep (09010005), Bois De Sioux (09020101), Mustinka (09020102), Otter Tail (09020103), Upper Red (09020104), Western Wild Rice (09020105), Buffalo (09020106), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Goose (09020109), Devils Lake (09020201), Upper Sheyenne (09020202), Middle Sheyenne (09020203), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Maple (09020205), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Thief (09020304), Clearwater (09020305), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Snake (09020309), Park (09020310), Lower Red (09020311), Two Rivers (09020312), Pembina (09020313), Roseau (09020314), Vermilion (09030002), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004), Little Fork (09030005), Big Fork (09030006), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Upper Missouri (10030101), Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Marias (10030203), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Judith (10040103), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Middle Milk (10050004), Lower Milk (10050012), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Brush Lake closed basin (10060007), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Upper Powder (10090202), Crazy Woman (10090205), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Lake Sakakawea (10110101), Little Muddy (10110102), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Middle Little Missouri (10110203), Beaver (10110204), Lower Little Missouri (10110205), Angostura Reservoir (10120106), Beaver (10120107), Hat (10120108), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Rapid (10120110), Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111), Lower Cheyenne (10120112), Cherry (10120113), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Redwater (10120203), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Apple (10130103), Beaver (10130104), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), West Missouri Coteau (10130106), Knife (10130201), Upper Heart (10130202), Lower Heart (10130203), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Cedar (10130205), Lower Cannonball (10130206), North Fork Grand (10130301), South Fork Grand (10130302), Grand (10130303), South Fork Moreau (10130304), Upper Moreau (10130305), Lower Moreau (10130306), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Bad (10140102), Medicine Knoll (10140103), Medicine (10140104), Crow (10140105), Upper White (10140201), Middle White (10140202), Little White (10140203), Lower White (10140204), Ponca (10150001), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), James Headwaters (10160001), Pipestem (10160002), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Mud (10160005), Middle James (10160006), East Missouri Coteau (10160007), Snake (10160008), Turtle (10160009), North Big Sioux Coteau (10160010), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Vermillion (10170102), South Big Sioux Coteau (10170103), Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower Laramie (10180011), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), Clear (10190004), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Kiowa (10190010), Bijou (10190011), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Beaver (10190013), Pawnee (10190014), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Sidney Draw (10190017), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Upper North Loup (10210006), Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Loup (10210009), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Arikaree (10250001), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Stinking Water (10250006), Red Willow (10250007), Medicine (10250008), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Upper Sappa (10250010), Lower Sappa (10250011), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Beaver (10250014), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), West Fork Big Blue (10270203), Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Upper Arkansas (11020002), Fountain (11020003), Chico (11020004), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Huerfano (11020006), Apishapa (11020007), Horse (11020008), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Big Sandy (11020011), Rush (11020012), Two Butte (11020013), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Upper Cimarron (11040002), North Fork Cimarron (11040003), Sand Arroyo (11040004), Bear (11040005), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Canadian headwaters (11080001)+*, Cimarron (11080002)+*, Upper Canadian (11080003)+, Conchas (11080005)+, Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006)+, Middle Canadian-Trujillo (11090101), Punta De Agua (11090102), Rita Blanca (11090103), Carrizo (11090104), Lake Meredith (11090105), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Coldwater (11100103), Palo Duro (11100104), Lower Beaver (11100201), Upper Wolf (11100202), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Tierra Blanca (11120101), Palo Duro (11120102), Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120103), Tule (11120104), Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120105), Upper Salt Fork Red (11120201), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Upper North Fork Red (11120301), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), North Pease (11130103), Middle Pease (11130104), Pease (11130105), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), North Wichita (11130204), South Wichita (11130205), Wichita (11130206), Southern Beaver (11130207), Northern Beaver (11130208), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Washita headwaters (11130301), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), North Galveston Bay (12040203), West Galveston Bay (12040204), Austin-Oyster (12040205), Yellow House Draw (12050001), Blackwater Draw (12050002)+, North Fork Double Mountain Fork (12050003), Double Moutain Fork Brazos (12050004), Running Water Draw (12050005), White (12050006), Salt Fork Brazos (12050007), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Hubbard (12060105), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Lost Draw (12080001), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Monument-Seminole Draws (12080003), Mustang Draw (12080004), Johnson Draw (12080005), Sulphur Springs Draw (12080006), Beals (12080007), Upper Colorado (12080008), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), South Concho (12090102), Middle Concho (12090103), North Concho (12090104), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Jim Ned (12090108), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Bernard (12090401), East Matagorda Bay (12090402), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Central Matagorda Bay (12100401), West Matagorda Bay (12100402), West San Antonio Bay (12100404), Aransas Bay (12100405), Mission (12100406), Aransas (12100407), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Upper Nueces (12110103), Turkey (12110104), Middle Nueces (12110105), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), North Corpus Christi Bay (12110201), South Corpus Christi Bay (12110202), San Fernando (12110204), Baffin Bay (12110205), Palo Blanco (12110206), Central Laguna Madre (12110207), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Rio Chama (13020102)+*, Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201)+*, Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+*, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+*, Caballo (13030101)+*, El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+*, Rio Grande-Fort Quitman (13040100)+, Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Alamito (13040202), Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Terlingua (13040204), Big Bend (13040205), Maravillas (13040206), Santiago Draw (13040207), Reagan-Sanderson (13040208), San Francisco (13040209), Lozier Canyon (13040210), Big Canyon (13040211), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Upper Devils (13040301), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Salt Basin (13050004), Pecos headwaters (13060001)+, Upper Pecos (13060003)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+, Rio Hondo (13060008)+*, Rio Felix (13060009)+*, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+, Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001)+, Delaware (13070002), Toyah (13070003), Salt Draw (13070004), Barrilla Draw (13070005), Coyanosa-Hackberry Draws (13070006), Landreth-Monument Draws (13070007), Lower Pecos (13070008), Tunas (13070009), Independence (13070010), Howard Draw (13070011), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001)
14 Upper San Juan (14080101)+*, Middle San Juan (14080105)+*
15 Upper Gila (15040001)+*, Upper Gila-Mangas (15040002)+*, San Francisco (15040004)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and summer. Eggs hatch in 5-10 days. Males guard and fan water over nest during incubation and stay with young after hatching. Schools of young may persist several weeks after departure from nest. Sexually mature in 2-8 years. Females spawn once annually (Scott and Crossman 1973, Moyle 1976).
Ecology Comments: May travel hundreds of miles upstream or downstream in rivers (Becker 1983). Through competition and/or hybridization, has eliminated I. LUPUS from most of original range in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: May travel hundreds of miles upstream or downstream in rivers (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes the main channels of small to large rivers, from clear, rapidly flowing, firm-bottomed ones to turbid, mud-bottomed ones, and ponds, lakes, and reservoirs; this species avoids upland streams. Adults usually are in pools or under log jams or cut banks by day, move into riffles at night. Eggs are laid in cave-like sites, such as old muskrat burrows, undercut banks, or log jams, or debris (e.g., barrels). In streams, young-of-year live fulltime in riffles.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Bottom feeder. Young eat mainly small invertebrates; as they grow, fishes and crayfish become increasingly important, though individuals of all sizes eat abundant aquatic insects. Large fish are mainly piscivorous (Moyle 1976). Also ingests plant material. In Arizona, preyed heavily on reintroduced razorback suckers (Marsh and Brooks 1989).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Most active at night (sundown to midnight) and when water levels are rising (Becker 1983).
Length: 127 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: The most widely cultivated warm water fish in North America; can be reared in polyculture with other fishes or freshwater shrimp; readily hybridizes with blue catfish and hybrids grow faster than either parent (induced polyploidy has same effect) (Sublette et al. 1990). Has been used in carcinogenesis testing (Metcalfe 1989).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Large Catfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Use collection/observation points, habitat considerations, and judgment of knowledgeable biologists to determine the area (occupied habitat) that should be mapped as the occurrence. Widely separated points can be included in a single occurrence if there is no reason to suspect the presence of a population disontinuity. Do not extend the occurrence into river segments lacking actual collection/observation points.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: In general, each occupied river segment that is undivided by a barrier should be treated as a single distinct occurrence, regardless of the distance between observation/collection sites. A single occurrence may include multiple tributaries.
Separation Justification: Separation procedure reflects the fact that these fishes regularly move substantial distances (dozens of kilometers or more). Becker (1983) stated that channel catfish may travel hundreds of miles upstream or downstream in rivers.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation procedure is used regardless of habitat suitability.

It is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 02Nov2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catfishes that often are more than 50 cm in length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bailey, R.M. and H.M. Harrison, Jr. 1948. Food habits of thesouthern channel catfish, Ictalurus lacustris punctatus, in the Des Moines River, Iowa. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 75:110-138.

  • Davis, J. 1959. Management of channel catfish in Kansas. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication No. 21. 56 pp.

  • Kelsch, S. W., and F. S. Hendricks. 1986. An electrophoretic and multivariate morphometric comparison of the American catfishes Ictalurus lupus and I. punctatus. Copeia 1986:646-652.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Marsh, P. C., and J. E. Brooks. 1989. Predation by ictalurid catfishes as a deterrent to re-establishment of hatchery-reared razorback suckers. Southwestern Naturalist 34:188-195.

  • Metcalfe, C. D. 1989. Tests for predicting carcinogenicity in fish. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1):111-129.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Muncy, R. J. 1957. Distribution and movements of channel and flathead catfish in the Des Moines River, Boone County, Iowa. Iowa State University, Ames. PhD Thesis. 118 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Townsend, C. R., and M. J. Winterbourn. 1992. Assessment of the environmental risk posed by an exotic fish: the proposed introduction of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to New Zealand. Conservation Biology 6:273-282.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

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