Ichthyomyzon unicuspis - Hubbs and Trautman, 1937
Silver Lamprey
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ichthyomyzon unicuspis Hubbs and Trautman, 1937 (TSN 159730)
French Common Names: Lamproie argentée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100235
Element Code: AFBAA01060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Lampreys
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Petromyzontida Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae Ichthyomyzon
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Taxonomic Comments: Ichthyomyzon fossor and I. unicuspis may "represent ecotypes of a single species since, where they are sympatric, they appear to be experiencing ongoing gene flow" (Docker et al. 2012; see also Docker 2009).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Fairly large range, mainly in the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, upper Mississippi River, and Ohio River drainages; secure throughout more than 80% of the range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (19Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (S2), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1), New York (S3), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S2), Vermont (S2?), West Virginia (S2S3), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):SC,DD
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes basin from Quebec to southwestern Ontario, south through upper Mississippi and Ohio river basins to central Tennessee; Hudson Bay basin, Manitoba; and Missouri River (Nebraska) and Mississippi River (Mississippi) (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is regarded as uncommon (Page and Burr 1991); moderately abundant in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Locally, possible threats include habitat modification (e.g., impoundments, dredging) and pollution.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes basin from Quebec to southwestern Ontario, south through upper Mississippi and Ohio river basins to central Tennessee; Hudson Bay basin, Manitoba; and Missouri River (Nebraska) and Mississippi River (Mississippi) (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, MO, MS, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, TN, VT, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005)*
MS Warren (28149)*
NE Douglas (31055)*, Otoe (31131), Sarpy (31153)*
OH Adams (39001), Ashtabula (39007), Clermont (39025), Fairfield (39045), Gallia (39053), Hamilton (39061)*, Huron (39077)*, Lake (39085), Lawrence (39087), Lorain (39093)*, Lucas (39095), Meigs (39105), Ottawa (39123)*, Pickaway (39129), Pike (39131)*, Ross (39141), Scioto (39145), Vinton (39163)*, Wood (39173)
PA Erie (42049), Mercer (42085)*
TN Davidson (47037)*, Decatur (47039)*, Dickson (47043), Stewart (47161)*
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Grand Isle (50013)*, Rutland (50021)
WV Cabell (54011), Mason (54053), Wayne (54099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004)*, Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300)*, Oconto (04030104)*, Menominee (04030108), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Au Sable (04070007), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Tittabawassee (04080201), Detroit (04090004), St. Joseph (04100003), Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*, Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Lake Ontario (04150200)*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)*, English-Salmon (04150307)*, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Shenango (05030102)+*, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Elk (05050007), Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+*, Big Sandy (05070204)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Middle Green (05110003), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112)*, Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114)*, Skillet (05120115)*, Lower White (05120202), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+*, Harpeth (05130204)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+*, Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Apple-Plum (07060005), Lake Dubay (07070002)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), The Sny (07110004)*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001)*, Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+*
09 Rainy Lake (09030003), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A jawless fish (lamprey) that reaches a length of 39 cm.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Larval stage probably lasts 4-7 years. Metamorphosis begins in late summer, completed in following spring or summer. Adults feed during summer, overwinter, then spawn the following spring; dies after spawning.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates between upstream spawning areas and downstream larval habitat. Newly metamorphosed adults migrate downstream from larval habitat to feeding areas in large rivers and lakes. In the Fox River, Wisconsin, upstream migrants were captured most frequently from mid-April to mid-May (Cochran and Marks 1995).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Adults feed in lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers (Page and Burr 2011). Larvae burrow into mud and silt in pools or at margins of rivers after drifting downstream from spawning areas.

Eggs are laid in nests in gravelly riffles in medium-sized streams with moderate gradient.

Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Adults parasitic on fishes. Larvae filter-feed on drifting microscopic organisms.
Length: 37 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Nonanadromous Lampreys

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 28Nov2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Dirrigl, F., Jr., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Cochran, P. A., and J. E. Marks. 1995. Biology of the silver lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, in Green Bay and the lower Fox River, with a comparison to the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Copeia 1995:409-421.

  • Docker, M. F. 2009. A review of the evolution of nonparasitism in lampreys and an update of the paired species concept. American Fisheries Society Symposium 72:71-114.

  • Docker, M. F., N. E. Mandrak, and D. D. Heath. 2012. Comtenporary gene flow between "paired" silver (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis) and northern brook (I. fossor) lampreys: implications for conservation. Conservation Genetics DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0332-3.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Hardisty, M. W. and I. C. Potter, eds. 1971. The Biology of Lampreys. Academic Press, London and New York. pp. 1-65.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wilson, F. W. 1955. Lampreys in the Lake Champlain basin. American Midland Naturalist 54(1):168-172.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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