Ichthyomyzon greeleyi - Hubbs and Trautman, 1937
Mountain Brook Lamprey
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ichthyomyzon greeleyi Hubbs and Trautman, 1937 (TSN 159728)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101083
Element Code: AFBAA01050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Lampreys
Image 18

© Noel Burkhead

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Petromyzontida Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae Ichthyomyzon
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ichthyomyzon greeleyi
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 11May2011
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Occurs in the Ohio River basin, from New York to northern Alabama and Georgia; extirpated from some areas as a result of habitat degradation due to pollution, siltation, and dams; secretive, likely more abundant than available information indicates; now probably relatively stable, but better information is needed.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (11May2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Georgia (S2S3), Kentucky (S2), New York (S1), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S4), Tennessee (S3), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is discontinuously distributed in the Ohio River basin, including the Allegheny River and headwaters of the Kentucky, Green, and Cumberland rivers and upper Tennessee River tributaries, from extreme southwestern New York (Smith 1985), northwestern Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983), and eastern Ohio (Trautman 1981) southward through Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986) and West Virginia (Stauffer et al. 1995) to Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993), northern Alabama (Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004), northern Georgia, and western North Carolina (Menhinick 1991). Kentucky records from the Kentucky River and the Ohio River at Paducah are erroneous (Burr and Warren 1986).

Area of Occupancy: 101-10,000 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Linear distance of occupancy is not known but probably is at least several hundred stream kilometers.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). This species is difficult to survey because of the secretive habits of larvae and the brief period of activity of the adults (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), so it may occur in more locations than available records indicate.

In New York, this species was collected twice from one location in 1937 and 1975; condition of the site is estimated to be fair or poor; species has not been extensively sought (Smith 1985; P. Novak, pers. comm., 1997). Cooper (1983) mapped 14 collection sites in Pennsylvania; these represent several distinct occurrences. In Ohio, Trautman (1981) mapped 8 collection sites, with two during the period 1955-1980; the species is represented by a few extant occurrences in two drainages, with 50% in good to excellent condition and 50% in poor condition (D. Rice, pers. comm., 1997). In Kentucky, Burr and Warren (1986) mapped 5 widely scattered collection sites; more recently, 8 recorded occurrences and an estimated 0-5 extant occurrences in good to fair condition (R. Cicerello, pers. comm., 1997). In Georgia, estimated 0-5 extant occurrences of unknown condition (R. MacBeth, pers. comm., 1997). Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) mapped 11 widely scattered collection localities in Virginia. Etnier and Starnes (1993) mapped 32 collection sites in Tennessee; these represent probably about 20 distinct occurrences. Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 7 collection sites in Alabama. Menhinick (1991) mapped approximately 40 collection sites in North Carolina.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown. Adults are available for only a brief period in spring; hence collections probably underestimate abundance (Cooper 1983, Etnier and Starnes 1993).

This species has been described as generally uncommon (Boschung and Mayden 2004), locally common (Page and Burr 1991), and locally abundant (Etnier and Starnes 1993). The species was characterized as "sporadic and rare" in the upper Green and Cumberland rivers in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986). Boschung and Mayden (2004) stated that the rarity of this species in Alabama warrants Special Concern status.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Some populations have been depleted or extirpated as a result of habitat degradation due to pollution (e.g., runoff with cow manure, sewage, fertilizer, and pesticides), siltation (e.g., from overgrazing, row cropping, and land clearing), and stream alteration, including dams that block movements of adults and ammocoetes (Trautman 1981, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Felbaum 1995; mountain brook lamprey fact sheet, New York Department of Environmental Conservation). These factors continue to limit the habitat available to the species. However, Jelks et al. (2008) did not include this species among the fish species they categorized as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Current/recent trend is unknown, but area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, population size, and habitat quality probably are relatively stable or slowly declining. Probably most of the decline occurred many years ago. Warren et al. (2000) categorized the species as "currently stable" in the southern United States. Jelks et al. (2008) similarly concluded that on a range-wide basis this species is not endangered, threatened, or vulnerable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Some populations have been extirpated (Trautman 1981, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), but the degree of decline over the long term is not precisely known.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Better information is needed on current distribution, abundance, and trends.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species is discontinuously distributed in the Ohio River basin, including the Allegheny River and headwaters of the Kentucky, Green, and Cumberland rivers and upper Tennessee River tributaries, from extreme southwestern New York (Smith 1985), northwestern Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983), and eastern Ohio (Trautman 1981) southward through Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986) and West Virginia (Stauffer et al. 1995) to Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993), northern Alabama (Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004), northern Georgia, and western North Carolina (Menhinick 1991). Kentucky records from the Kentucky River and the Ohio River at Paducah are erroneous (Burr and Warren 1986).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, GA, KY, NC, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Lauderdale (01077)
IL Massac (17127)*
KY Adair (21001), Allen (21003)*, Green (21087)*, Laurel (21125), McCracken (21145)*, McCreary (21147), Pulaski (21199), Rockcastle (21203), Warren (21227)*, Wayne (21231)
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013)
OH Knox (39083), Portage (39133), Trumbull (39155)
PA Crawford (42039), Elk (42047), Erie (42049), Forest (42053), Jefferson (42065), Lawrence (42073), McKean (42083)*, Potter (42105)*, Venango (42121)*, Warren (42123)
VA Lee (51105)*, Scott (51169)*, Smyth (51173)*, Tazewell (51185)
WV Jackson (54035)*, Wood (54107)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Tugaloo (03060102)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+*, Little Kanawha (05030203), Walhonding (05040003)+, Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201)+*, Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+, Rockcastle (05130102)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Upper Duck (06040002), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Mountain brook lamprey, a nonparasitic lamprey
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring (late April to early June in several areas) (Raney 1939, Schwartz 1959, Trautman 1981, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Larval stage lasts a few to several years (5.2-6.2 years in western North Carolina). Larvae metamorphose mid-August to mid-December in western North Carolina (Beamish and Austin 1985). Adults die after spawning (Raney 1939).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate upstream from larval habitat to spawning habitat
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes clean, clear, gentle- or high-gradient creeks (1-23 meters wide, 30-60 centimeters deep) with substrates generally of sand, pebbles, and small stones (Schwartz 1959, Burr and Warren 1986, Boschung and Mayden 2004,Page and Burr 2011). Adults occur in riffles or runs, under overhanging banks, or occasionally they attach to stones in the current; larvae burrow into beds of mixed sand, mud, and organic debris in pools and backwaters (Burr and Warren 1986, Page and Burr 2011). In Pennsylvania, spawning occurred just above swift riffles and throughout slow to moderate riffles (Raney 1939). In West Virginia, spawning occurred in the middle and lower portions of riffles (Schwartz 1959). In Virginia, Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) observed a spawning group in a gentle, shallow run of mostly small, loose gravel in a stream 2-4 meters wide.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Adults do not feed. Larval filter-feed on microscopic organisms and detritus.
Length: 17 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Nonanadromous Lampreys

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 28Nov2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., R. Jennings, P. Novak, and M. K. Clausen
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Beamish, F. W. H., and L. S. Austin. 1985. Growth of the mountain brook lamprey Ichthyomyzon greeleyi Hubbs and Trautman. Copeia 1985:881-890.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Felbaum, F., B. Mitchell, K. McKenna, J. Hassinger, A. Shiels, J. Hart and D. Brauning. 1995. Endangered and threatened species of Pennsylvania. Wildlife Conservation Resource Fund, Harrisburg, PA, 80 pp

  • Hardisty, M. W. and I. C. Potter, eds. 1971. The Biology of Lampreys. Academic Press, London and New York. pp. 1-65.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • METTEE, M.F., P.E. O'NIEL, AND J.M. PIERSON. 1996. FISHES OF ALABAMA AND THE MOBILE BASIN. OXMOOR HOUSE, INC., BIRMINGHAM, AL. 820PP.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Raney, E. C. 1939c. The breeding habits of Ichthyomyzon greeleyi Hubbs and Trautman. Copeia 1939:111-112.

  • Raney, E.C. 1939a. The breeding habits of ICHTHYOMYZON GREELEYI Hubbs and Trautman. Copeia (2): 111-112.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rohde, F. C., R. G. Arndt, D. G. Lindquist and J. F. Parnell. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 222 pp.

  • Schwartz, F. J. 1959. Records of the Allegheny brook lamprey Ichthyomyzon greeleyi Hubbs and Trautman, from West Virginia, with comments on its occurrence with Lampetra aeptypera (Abbott). Ohio Journal of Science 59(4):217-220.

  • Simbeck, D. J. 1990. Distribution of the fishes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. MS thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 128 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Texas Natural History Collections [University of Texas at Austin]. 1997. February 7-last update. North American Freshwater Fishes Index (Images, Maps and Information). Online. Available: http://www.utexas.edu/depts/tnhc/www.fish.tnhc/na/naindex.ht ml. Accessed 1997, April 4.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

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