Ichthyomyzon gagei - Hubbs and Trautman, 1937
Southern Brook Lamprey
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman, 1937 (TSN 159727)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102239
Element Code: AFBAA01040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Lampreys
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Petromyzontida Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae Ichthyomyzon
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ichthyomyzon gagei
Taxonomic Comments: The disjunct populations in Wisconsin and Minnesota are of uncertain taxonomic status; they have been referred to as "ICHTHYOMYZON cf. GAGEI" (Lyons et al. 1997).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4), Kentucky (SX), Louisiana (S4), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S2S3), Oklahoma (S3), Tennessee (S1), Texas (S4), Wisconsin (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Gulf Slope drainages from Galveston Bay, Texas, to Ochlockonee River, Florida; Mississippi River basin of southern Missouri, eastern Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana; Tennessee River drainage, western Kentucky and northern Alabama; disjunct population in Mississippi River tributaries, Wisconsin and Minnesota (Lyons et al. 1997, Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is locally common in much of its range, though rare in certain peripheral locations.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable (Ross 2001, Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Gulf Slope drainages from Galveston Bay, Texas, to Ochlockonee River, Florida; Mississippi River basin of southern Missouri, eastern Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana; Tennessee River drainage, western Kentucky and northern Alabama; disjunct population in Mississippi River tributaries, Wisconsin and Minnesota (Lyons et al. 1997, Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, KYextirpated, LA, MN, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX, WI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Calhoun (13037), Carroll (13045), Chattahoochee (13053), Chattooga (13055), Cherokee (13057), Clay (13061), Cobb (13067)*, Coweta (13077), Crawford (13079), Dawson (13085), Decatur (13087), Dooly (13093), Early (13099), Floyd (13115), Forsyth (13117)*, Gilmer (13123), Gordon (13129), Grady (13131), Haralson (13143), Heard (13149), Lee (13177), Lumpkin (13187), Macon (13193), Marion (13197), Meriwether (13199), Murray (13213), Paulding (13223), Pickens (13227), Polk (13233), Quitman (13239), Randolph (13243), Schley (13249), Stewart (13259), Sumter (13261), Talbot (13263), Taylor (13269), Terrell (13273), Troup (13285), Upson (13293), Walker (13295), Webster (13307), Whitfield (13313), Worth (13321)
KY Calloway (21035)*
MN Carlton (27017), Chisago (27025), Kanabec (27065), Pine (27115), Washington (27163)
MO Cape Girardeau (29031), Carter (29035), Madison (29123), McDonald (29119)*, Shannon (29203), St. Clair (29185)*, Wayne (29223), Wright (29229)
OK Adair (40001)*, Latimer (40077), Le Flore (40079), Mayes (40097), McCurtain (40089), Pushmataha (40127), Sequoyah (40135)*
TN Bedford (47003), Bradley (47011), Polk (47139), Wayne (47181)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+*, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Middle Flint (03130006)+, Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Spring (03130010)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101)+, Coosawattee (03150102)+, Oostanaula (03150103)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108)+, Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)*, Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Pond (05110006)
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)*, Upper Duck (06040002)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+*
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Whitewater (07140107)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207), Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yocona (08030203), Yalobusha (08030205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Little (08040304), Upper Big Black (08060201), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)*, Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Bayou Teche (08080102)*, Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204)*, West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
10 Sac (10290106)+, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Upper Gasconade (10290201)+
11 Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Current (11010008)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Elk (11070208)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Lower Canadian (11090204)+, Illinois (11110103)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+*, Poteau (11110105)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Lower Sulphur (11140302)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Larval stage lasts undetermined number of years. Larvae metamorphose in winter before spawning.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes gravel and sand riffles and runs of small rivers and creeks; larvae burrow into detritus in slack water areas (Lee et al. 1980) or in flowing water near sand bars and debris (Page and Burr 2011). Eggs are laid in clean riffle areas.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Adults do not feed. Larval filter feed on microscopic organisms and detritus.
Length: 17 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Nonanadromous Lampreys

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 28Nov2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Cochran, P. A. 1985. Bicuspid brook lampreys of the genus Ichthyomyzon in northern Wisconsin: Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman? Preliminary draft. 17 pp.

  • Cochran, P. A. 1985. New distributional records for Wisconsin amphibians and reptiles. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 74:138-141.

  • Cochran, P. A. 1987. The Southern Brook Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon gagei) in the St. Croix River drainage of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Copeia 1987:443-446.

  • Cochran, P. A. 1987. The southern brook lamprey (Ichythyomyzon gagei) in the St. Croix River drainage of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Copeia 1987:443-446.

  • Cochran, P. A. and A. P. Gripentrog. 1992. Aggregation and spawning by lampreys (genus Ichthyomyzon) beneath cover. Environmental Biology of Fishes 33:381-387.

  • Cochran, P. A., and T. C. Pettinelli. 1987. Northern and southern brook lampreys (Ichthyomyzon fossor and I. gagei) in Minnesota. Final report to the Minnesota Department of Naturasl Resources. 15 pp.

  • Cochran, Philip A. 1985. Bicuspid Brook Lampreys of the Genus Ichthyomyzon in Northern Wisconsin: Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in published report. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, vol. 74.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Hardisty, M. W. and I. C. Potter, eds. 1971. The Biology of Lampreys. Academic Press, London and New York. pp. 1-65.

  • Lyons, J., P. A. Cochran, and M. E. Sneen. 1997. Taxonomic status and distribution of the lamprey Ichthyomyzon cf. gagei. American Midland Naturalist 138:69-76.

  • Lyons, J., P. A. Cochran, and M. E. Sneen. 1997. Taxonomic status and distribution of the lamprey Ichthyomyzon cf. gagei. American Midland Naturalist 138:69-76.

  • Lyons, J., P. Hanson, E. White, J. F. Kitchell, and P. Moy.  2012.  Wisconsin fish identification database [web application].  <http://wiscfish.org>.  Accessed 23 May 2016.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • NatureServe.  2015.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 23 May 2016.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Okkelberg, P. 1922. Notes on the life history of the brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicolor. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. No. 125. 14 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Phillips, G, L. American Eel Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817). In J. T. Hatch, G. L. Phillips, K. P. Schmidt, and M. McInerny, editors. The Fishes of Minnesota (in preparation).

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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