Ictiobus niger - (Rafinesque, 1819)
Black Buffalo
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ictiobus niger (Rafinesque, 1819) (TSN 163957)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101227
Element Code: AFCJC07030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Ictiobus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ictiobus niger
Taxonomic Comments: See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NU (02Jan2006)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S2S3), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Georgia (SNA), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S3), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S2), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (SU), Pennsylvania (S3), South Dakota (SU), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (SU)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Data Deficient (22Apr2007)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: It is not clear whether specimens with sub-terminal mouths recently collected from several locations in the lower Great Lakes are of this species or the closely related Smallmouth Buffalo. Reliable keys for identification of the species do not currently exist and are required in order to establish the eligibility of the species for assessment, and to determine the extent of its distribution in Canada.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1989. Species considered in April 2007 and placed in the Data Deficient category. More recently (2015), considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the lower Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Michigan and Ohio to South Dakota and south to Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011). A related form occurs in the Rio Grande drainage of Mexico and possibly Texas (Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced in Arizona impoundments (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: This species is regarded as uncommon (Page and Burr 2011), but total adult population size presumably exceeds 10,000.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is unknown but is suspected to be relatively stable or slowly declining. See Houston (1990) for information on status in Canada.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the lower Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Michigan and Ohio to South Dakota and south to Louisiana (Page and Burr 2011). A related form occurs in the Rio Grande drainage of Mexico and possibly Texas (Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced in Arizona impoundments (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, GAexotic, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NDexotic, NE, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Ballard (21007), Boone (21015), Bracken (21023), Breckinridge (21027)*, Campbell (21037), Crittenden (21055), Daviess (21059), Fulton (21075), Gallatin (21077), Grayson (21085)*, Hardin (21093)*, Henderson (21101)*, Hickman (21105), Jefferson (21111)*, Livingston (21139), Lyon (21143), Marshall (21157), McCracken (21145), Meade (21163)*, Trigg (21221)*, Union (21225)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Berrien (26021)*, Ottawa (26139)*
MN Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Carver (27019), Dakota (27037), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055)*, Le Sueur (27079), Nicollet (27103), Ramsey (27123), Renville (27129), Scott (27139), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169), Yellow Medicine (27173)
MS Bolivar (28011), Claiborne (28021)*, Coahoma (28027), Hancock (28045), Quitman (28119), Tishomingo (28141)*, Tunica (28143), Warren (28149), Washington (28151)
NC Madison (37115)
NE Douglas (31055), Otoe (31131), Platte (31141)*, Washington (31177)*
OK Delaware (40041)*, Kay (40071), Marshall (40095)*, Osage (40113)*, Ottawa (40115)*, Payne (40119)
SD Davison (46035)*, Lincoln (46083), Minnehaha (46099)
WI Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Dunn (55033), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049), La Crosse (55063), Lafayette (55065), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Polk (55095), Richland (55103), Rock (55105), Sauk (55111), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123)
WV Jackson (54035), Mason (54053), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+*, Upper Grand (04050004), Lower Grand (04050006)+, Lake Huron (04080300)*
05 Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Muskingum (05040004), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001)*, Lower Scioto (05060002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004)+, Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Salt (05140102), Blue-Sinking (05140104)+*, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Sequatchie (06020004), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005), Green (07090007), Middle Des Moines (07100004)*, Boone (07100005)*, North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002)*, The Sny (07110004)*, North Fork Salt (07110005), Salt (07110007)*, Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Chicago (07120003), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)*, Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204)+, Yalobusha (08030205), Big Sunflower (08030207)+, Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209)+, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+, Lower Big Black (08060202)+, Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Lower James (10160011)+*, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Grand (10280101), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), South Grand (10290108), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111)*, Upper Gasconade (10290201)*, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Lower Cimarron (11050003)+, Kaw Lake (11060001), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004)+, Chikaskia (11060005)+, Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107)+*, Neosho headwaters (11070201), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208)+*, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Cadron (11110205), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Lake Texoma (11130210)+, Lower Washita (11130304)+*, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Sabine Lake (12040201), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Sexually mature at age II in south (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes pools and backwaters small to large rivers; reservoirs; lakes (Page and Burr 2011). This species is often in strong currents of large rivers (Lee et al. 1980). Spawning occurs in flooded areas.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats planktonic and bottom organisms such as insects, mollusks, and vegetation (Becker 1983).
Length: 66 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Large Suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 20 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance. For example, individual blue suckers may move more than 160 km between spawning and nonspawning habitats; these widely separated locations are part of the same occurrence.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Occurrences are separated at major confluences. "Major confluences" may be subjectively defined, but separations should result in occurrences that represent population units whose viability potentially may be ranked as good or excellent (in other words, occurrences should not be so small that the best of them would never be expected to persist over the long term on their own).
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 20 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 11Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are larger than 40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Hatch, J. T., K. P. Schmidt, D. P. Siems, J. C. Underhill, R. A. Bellig, and R. A. Baker. 2003. A new distributional checklist of Minnesota fishes, with comments on historical occurrence. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 67:1-17.

  • Houston, J. 1990. Status of the black buffalo, Ictiobus niger, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:98-102.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Phillips, G. L., and J. C. Underhill. 1971. Distribution and variation of the Catostomidae in Minnesota. Occasional Papers of the Bell Museum of Natural History 10:1-45.

  • Pitlo, J., Jr., A. Van Vooren, and J. Rasmussen. 1995. Distribution and relative abundance of Upper Mississippi River fishes. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 20 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P., and N. Proulx. 2009. Status and critical habitat of rare fish species in the Mississippi River from the Coon Rapids Dam to the Iowa border. Final report submitted to the State Wildlife Grants Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 29 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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