Ichthyomyzon fossor - Reighard and Cummins, 1916
Northern Brook Lamprey
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ichthyomyzon fossor Reighard and Cummins, 1916 (TSN 159726)
French Common Names: lamproie du Nord
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102837
Element Code: AFBAA01030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Lampreys
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Petromyzontida Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae Ichthyomyzon
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ichthyomyzon fossor
Taxonomic Comments: Ichthyomyzon fossor and I. unicuspis may "represent ecotypes of a single species since, where they are sympatric, they appear to be experiencing ongoing gene flow" (Docker et al. 2012; see also Docker 2009).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 05Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (19Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S2), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S3), Missouri (S4), New York (S2), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), Vermont (S1), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S2), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S2S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):SC,DD
Comments on COSEWIC: The species was considered a single unit and designated Special Concern in April 1991. Split into two populations in April 2007: the Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence Populations (pop. 1) and the Saskatchewan - Nelson Population (pop. 2). The original designation was de-activated.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, west through Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River basins to Red River (Hudson Bay basin), southern Manitoba; localized in Ohio River basin from northwestern Pennsylvania to eastern Kentucky; Missouri River basin, Ozark Uplands, Missouri (Pflieger 1997, Page and Burr 2011)

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Becker (1983) mapped several dozen collection sites in Wisconsin, representing probably a few dozen distinct occurrences; he stated that the species is probably more widely distributed than present records indicate. Pflieger (1997) mapped 18 collection sites (1945-1995) in three well-isolated river systems in Missouri; he stated that due to identification problems with larvae, the species may be more widely distributed that available records suggest. Burr and Warren (1986) mapped 18 collection sites in several drainages Kentucky; these represent probably about a dozen distinct occurrences, but the species was rated as threatened there. Smith (1979) mapped three collection sites in Illinois all in one river.

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. Rage-wide, this species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011); occasional and uncommon in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); common in at least two river systems in Wisconsin (Becker 1983).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known, but the species is vulnerable to local extirpation through indiscriminant use of fish toxicants (Becker 1983).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, west through Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River basins to Red River (Hudson Bay basin), southern Manitoba; localized in Ohio River basin from northwestern Pennsylvania to eastern Kentucky; Missouri River basin, Ozark Uplands, Missouri (Pflieger 1997, Page and Burr 2011)

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, MO, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Crawford (17033), Kankakee (17091)*, Lee (17103)*, Putnam (17155)
IN Fulton (18049), La Porte (18091), Marshall (18099), Pulaski (18131), Starke (18149)
KY Carter (21043), Clay (21051)*, Elliott (21063), Estill (21065), Floyd (21071), Greenup (21089)*, Jackson (21109), Johnson (21115)*, Lawrence (21127)*, Leslie (21131)*, Menifee (21165), Perry (21193)*, Powell (21197), Wolfe (21237)
MN Carlton (27017), Dodge (27039), Fillmore (27045), Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071), Lake of the Woods (27077), Mower (27099), Olmsted (27109), Pine (27115), Roseau (27135), St. Louis (27137)
NY Clinton (36019), Erie (36029), Franklin (36033), Oswego (36075), St. Lawrence (36089)
OH Ashtabula (39007), Fairfield (39045)*, Franklin (39049)*, Hocking (39073)*, Lake (39085), Pickaway (39129), Ross (39141), Scioto (39145), Trumbull (39155), Vinton (39163)*
PA Crawford (42039)*, Erie (42049)
VT Chittenden (50007)
WV Braxton (54007)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Lake Superior (04020300)*, Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), St. Joseph (04050001), Kalamazoo (04050003), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Manistee (04060103), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Huron (04090005), St. Joseph (04100003)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+, Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302)+, St. Regis (04150306)+, Chateaugay-English (04150308)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Elk (05050007)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203)+, Big Sandy (05070204)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104)+, North Fork Kentucky (05100201)+, Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202)+, South Fork Kentucky (05100203)+, Upper Kentucky (05100204)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001), Kettle (07030003)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004)+, Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Lake Dubay (07070002)*, Castle Rock (07070003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Meramec (07140102)
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Niangua (10290110), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring. Eggs hatch in about 12 days. Larval stage lasts about 3-6 years. Metamorphosis occurs in late summer. Adults overwinter, spawn the following spring, die after undetermined time thereafter (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of small rivers (Page and Burr 2011); this species usually does not occur in large rivers or small brooks. Usually it occurs over gravel or sand-silt bottoms in moderately warm water, generally unsuitable for brook trout (Becker 1983). Larvae burrow into sand-silt bottoms in eddies. Spawning occurs in coarse gravelly or stony bottoms of creeks or small rivers in areas of strong current.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Adults and possibly the larger larvae do not feed. Larvae filter feed on microscopic organisms (diatoms, algae, etc.).
Length: 16 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Nonanadromous Lampreys

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 28Nov2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Beamish, F.W. H. et Lowartz, S. 1996. Larval habitat of American brook lamprey. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 693-700 p.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

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  • Carlson, Douglas M. 1998. Species Accounts for the rare fishes of New York. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Bureau of Fisheries, Endangered Fish Project. 95pp.

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  • Cochran, P. A., and T. C. Pettinelli. 1987. Northern and southern brook lampreys (Ichthyomyzon fossor and I. gagei) in Minnesota. Final report to the Minnesota Department of Naturasl Resources. 15 pp.

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  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

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  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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