Hyoscyamus niger - L.
Black Henbane
Other Common Names: black henbane
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hyoscyamus niger L. (TSN 30523)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159180
Element Code: PDSOL0C020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Potato Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Solanales Solanaceae Hyoscyamus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hyoscyamus niger
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States COexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MTexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, SDexotic, UTexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Elko (32007), Eureka (32011), White Pine (32033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Little Smoky-Newark Valleys (16060006)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Hyoscyamus niger occurs on roadsides and in waste places in the northern U.S., especially in the west. Apparently it has not yet invaded natural communities but more information is needed. There is some conflicting information about its biological characteristics including whether it requires open soil to germinate, how long seeds remain viable, and the affect it has on water availability. Apparently it requires disturbance to invade, produces more than 1000 seeds per plant, and has seeds that remain viable in the soil for at least 3 years. More information is also needed about trends in its distribution and abundance and its management difficulty.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 08Mar2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to the mediterranean (Prather et al. 2002).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Habitat is pastures, fencerows, roadsides, and waste areas (Prather et al. 2002).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium/Low significance
Comments: It does not produce allelochemicals, affect soil nutrient availability or change the fire regime (NPS 2003). It does not affect water availability (NPS 2003) or it does affect the water availability for native plants (APRS Implementation Team 20001).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: It produces persistent litter or shade that affects the germination or growth of native species (APRS Implementation Team 20001).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: It is a poor competitor (NPS 2003) or a moderately successful competitor (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In Badlands National Park, it has not invaded native communities and is established only on sites disturbed in the last 3 years (NPS 2003). It requires open soil and disturbance to germinate (NPS 2003) or can germinate in vegetated areas but only under certain conditions (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown
Comments: Not known to hybridize with native species (NPS 2003).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: A weed of roadsides and waste places in the northern U.S., more especially westward (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In Badlands National Park, it is found only on disturbed sites, and is associated with early successional species, and has not invaded native communities (NPS 2003). In Utah, it occurs mainly as a roadside weed (Chase 1982). It occurs along roadsides and near old corrals in the intermountain region (Cronquist et al. 1984). Apparently it occurs in a few different disturbed habitats and has not invaded native habitats.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Widespread across the northern U.S. and also in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: A weed of roadsides and waste places in the northern U.S., more especially westward (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In Badlands National Park, it has a low impact (NPS 2003). In Utah, it is localized mainly in northern Utah and is a serious problem in Rich County where it occurs mainly as a roadside weed but has a potential to spread widely (Chase 1982). Along roadsides and near old corrals in the intermountain region (Cronquist et al. 1984). Since it occurs along roadsides and in waste areas, its impacts to biodiversity are presumed to be low. It is known to cause a low impact in natural areas with similar habitats and climate zones as Badlands National Park (NPS 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Low significance
Comments: At most 67% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001). At least 10% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: A weed of roadsides and waste places in the northern U.S., more especially westward (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In Badlands National Park, it is found only on disturbed sites, and is associated with early successional species, and has not invaded native communities (NPS 2003). In Utah, it occurs mainly as a roadside weed (Chase 1982). It occurs along roadsides and near old corrals in the intermountain region (Cronquist et al. 1984). Apparently it occurs in a few different disturbed habitats and has not invaded native habitats.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: In North Dakota, the acreage of Hyoscyamus niger reported has seemingly increased (Markley 2003). It is a weed of roadsides and waste places (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Since it is found along roadsides and in waste places, habitats which are not decreasing, it is presumed not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and Kartesz (1999), 30-90% of its potential range in the U.S. is currently occupied.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: The fruit is about 1-inch long, containing hundreds of small black seeds (Markle 2003). It has little potential for long-distance dispersal (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or great potential for long-distance dispersal (NPS 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: In Badlands National Park, it has shown little or no increase in numbers of individuals and populations and is usually observed as a single individual (NPS 2003). However, since it is a weed of roadsides and waste places (Gleason and Cronquist 1991), habitats which are not decreasing, it is presumed not declining (or stable).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: A weed of roadsides and waste places in the northern U.S.(Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Along roadsides and near old corrals in the intermountain region (Cronquist et al. 1984). It is a poor competitor (NPS 2003) or a moderately successful competitor (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In Badlands National Park, it has not invaded native communities and is established only in sites disturbed in the last 3 years (NPS 2003). It requires open soil and disturbance to germinate (NPS 2003) or can germinate in vegetated areas but only under certain conditions (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: It occurs in Canada (Kartesz 1999). Therefore it is known as an escape outside the region of interest.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Greater than 1000 seeds are produced per plant (NPS 2003). Seeds remain viable in the soil for 1 to 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001; NPS 2003). It resprouts when cut (NPS 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In Badlands National Park, it is easy to control (NPS 2003). Several herbicdes are effective at various stages of growth (Prather et al. 2002). Cultural techniques (ie burning) can be used to control it (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Young plants are easier to control than older plants; several herbicides provide good control when applied before bloom (Markley 2003). Seeds remain viable in the soil for 1 to 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001; NPS 2003).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Seeds remain viable in the soil for 1 to 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001; NPS 2003).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Control measures have little potential to affect native communities in Badlands National Park (NPS 2003).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: It is poisonous to humans and livestock avoid it (Prather et al. 2002). Therefore, at least some landowners would welcome its control.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alien plants ranking system (APRS) Implementation Team. 2001a. Alien plants ranking system version 7.1. Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse, Flagstaff, AZ. Online. Available: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/swepic/ (accessed 2004).

  • Chase, R. 1982. Repelling Green Invaders: Noxious Weeds in Utah. Utah Science. Spring.

  • Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4, Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 573 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Markle, D. 2003. North Dakota's next noxious weeds? North Dakota Noxious Weed Quarterly. 1(1): 1, 4. [http://www.agdepartment.com/Newsletters/NoxWeedSpring2003.pdf].

  • National Park Service. 2003. Badlands National Park Integrated Weed Management Plant and Environmental Assessment, March 2003. National Park Service. Online. Available: http://planning.nps.gov/plans1.cfm (accessed January 2004).

  • Prather, T. S., S. S. Robins, D. W. Morishita, L. W. Lass, R. H. Callihan, and T. W. Miller. 2002. Idaho's Noxious Weeds. University of Idaho Extension, Moscow. 76 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

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