Tetraneuris herbacea - Greene
Lakeside Daisy
Other English Common Names: Eastern Four-nerve-daisy
Other Common Names: eastern four-nerve daisy
Synonym(s): Actinea herbacea (Greene) B.L. Robins. ;Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra (Gray) Parker ;Hymenoxys herbacea (Greene) Cusick
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tetraneuris herbacea Greene (TSN 202490)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.130195
Element Code: PDASTDY060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Tetraneuris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tetraneuris herbacea
Taxonomic Comments: Treated at the species level as Tetraneuris herbacea by Kartesz (1994, 1999). USFWS also recognizes at the species level, but in a different genus, as Hymenoxys herbacea. Called Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra in most floras. Has also been called Actinea herbacea.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Sep2005
Global Status Last Changed: 29Sep2005
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known only from limestone and dolomite outcrops in restricted areas of Ontario, Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. About 20 populations are extant in Ontario, but the species is in danger of being extirpated in the United States. The Illinois populations have already been extirpated (although native-derived plants have been reintroduced and are surviving in habitats they formerly occupied). The site of the only natural population in Ohio is actively being quarried. The species has been introduced at a second Ohio site, using plants from the natural population. In addition to quarrying, woody succession poses a threat at many sites.

It is not expected that this species is overlooked given its conspicuous nature.

Nation: United States
National Status: N1
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (06Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S1), Michigan (S1), Ohio (S1)
Canada Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (23Jun1988)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central
Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: T (12Jan2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (01May2002)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: A Great Lakes endemic of global importance, geographically restricted to two shoreline regions of very restricted and provincially rare alvar habitats with large populations subject to risks from natural herbivores and increasing recreational use of its habitat.

Status history: Designated Threatened in May 2002.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Extant on the Marblehead Peninsula of Ottawa Co., Ohio and in Ontario, Canada on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula. Extirpated from Mason, Will and Tazewell Cos., Illinois. This species is also known from one location in Michigan (Oldham and Kraus 2002).

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: This species only occurs in alvars and bare rock.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Ontario 24 extant or more localities known (Ontario CDC, 3/94), on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula, both along the shore of Lake Huron. In Ohio, one 1 population fragment (7 scattered colonies) near the town of Lakeside on the Marblehead Peninsula, near Lake Erie. The Illinois populations are extirpated, but some plants containing Illinois genes are extant in cultivation; one occurrence has been reintroduced in Illinois from native Illinois material. Recently discovered at a single Michigan site. A total of 26 occurrences are known.

Population Size Comments: Locally abundant in good stands. There are extensive, probably millions of clumps, but the number of genets is unknown and probably far fewer. Overall, the population size is difficult to determine.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are 18 occurrences with good viability in Onatario, which is the major portion of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Found on limestone or dolomite outcrops, which are commercially quarried. Threats include quarrying, grazing and industrial development of habitat as well as successional woody growth, trampling and soil compaction.

Cottage development, recreational activities and quarrying a major threats in Ontario, even at relatively remote locations such as Manitoulin Island (Oldham and Kraus 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Some populations are declining, but overall this species is probably stable in Ontario. The occurrence in Illinois has been extirpated and the populations in Ohio have declined severly (Oldham and Kraus 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: May have some relatively delicate habitat requirements.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The habitat for this species, alvars, is globally rare.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Extant on the Marblehead Peninsula of Ottawa Co., Ohio and in Ontario, Canada on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula. Extirpated from Mason, Will and Tazewell Cos., Illinois. This species is also known from one location in Michigan (Oldham and Kraus 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IL, MI, OH
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Tazewell (17179), Will (17197)
MI Mackinac (26097)
OH Erie (39043), Ottawa (39123)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+
07 Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with flowering stalks, 5-25 cm tall, arising from basal tufts of leaves. When the plants are not in bloom, the small tufts of leaves are easily overlooked, but in bloom (late April-June, or July in Canada) the plants are extremely showy, with populations simultaneously producing masses of large (3-4 cm in diameter) yellow flower heads.
Reproduction Comments: This species is known to be an obligate outcrosser (self-incompatible), but also reproduces clonally.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Cliff, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Full sun in dry calcareous sites. Specifically, in thin soils over limestone or dolomite outcrops/exposures and in dry limestone prairies. Occurs nearly exclusively on alvars or on bare rock, in openings of a forest matrix.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Sep2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E., 1988; rev. L. Morse, 1994, Oldham/Cusick/Schwegman/Maybury, 1996, L. Morse, 8/2000, M. Oldham and L. Oliver (rev. 2005)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • CESCC (Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council). 2006. Wild Species 2005: The General Status of Species in Canada. (http://www.wildspecies.ca)

  • COSEWIC 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report the lakeside daisy Hymenoxys herbacea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 24 pp.

  • Campbell, L, B. Husband, and M.J. Oldham. 2001. COSEWIC Status Report on Lakeside Daisy, Hymenoxys herbacea. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 32 pp.

  • Campbell, L., B. Husband, M.J. Oldham. 2001. Draft Status Report on Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 32 pp

  • Campbell, L.G. 2000. Pollen Limitation in Small Populations of the Self-Incompatible Plant, Hymenoxys herbacea. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Guelph.

  • Campbell, L.G. and B.C. Husband. 2005. Impact of clonal growth on effective population size in Hymenoxys herbacea (Asteraceae). Heredity 94: 526532.

  • Campbell, L.G. and B.C. Husband. 2007. Small populations are mate-poor but pollinator-rich in a rare, self-incompatible plant, Hymenoxys herbacea (Asteraceae). New Phytologist: 1-11.

  • Campbell, Lesley, Dr. Brian Husband and Michael J. Olham. 2001. Draft COSEWIC Status Report on Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys heracea). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC); (unpublished). 36 pp.

  • Cochrane, K.E., J.L. Windus, G.J. Schneider. 1996. Monitoring the Status of Lakeside Daisy (HYMENOXYS HERBACEA) in Ohio: Kellys Island State Park, Lakeside Daisy State Nature Reserve and the Lafarge Marblehead Quarry.. Region 3, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota and the Reynoldsburg Field Office, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Reynoldsburg, Ohio. 24 pp.

  • Curry, B. 2015. Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea) in the Hamilton Study Area: a botanical mystery - solved! The Wood Duck 69(2): 28-29.

  • Cusick, A.W. 1991. Hymenoxys herbacea (Asteraceae): An endemic species of the Great Lakes Region. Rhodora 93(875):238-241.

  • Cusick, A.W. 1991. Hymenoxys herbacea (Asteraceae): an endemic species of the Great Lakes region. Rhodora 93: 238-241.

  • Data for WCMC Threatened Plants of the World project. 1994. Unpublished notes on state ranks from heritage botanists, sent to L. Kutner at The Nature Conservancy Home Office.

  • DeMauro, M.M. 1990. Recovery plan for the lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota.

  • DeMauro, M.M. 1993. Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Conservation Biology 7(3): 542-550.

  • DeMauro, M.M. 1994. Development and implementation of a recovery program for the federal threatened Lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Pp. 298-321, In: Restoration of Endangered Species: Conceptual Issues, Planning and Implementation. M.L. Bowles and C.J. Whelan (editors). Cambridge University Press.

  • Esselman, E.J., J.L. Windus and K.E. Cochrane. 2000. Examination of Isozyme Diversity Within and Between Populations of Hymenoxys herbacea (E.L. Greene) Cusick = H. acaulis var. glabra (Lakeside Daisy). A report for Region 3, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota submitted by Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 14 pp.

  • FNA (Flora of North America Editorial Committee). 2006c. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 21. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 616 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. 1970 printing with corrections by R.C. Rollins [of 1950 8th edition]. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

  • Fisher, R.T. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus. 280 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006c. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 21. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 616 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. lxxv + 910 pp.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Plants. 100th ESPB Meeting, May 15, 1998. 12pp.

  • Johnson, J. 1984. Bruce Peninsula Plants in Flower 8-10 June. The Plant Press Vol.2 No.2 (34-35).

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • McGuire, J. 2006. Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea) Inventory Report. Bruce Peninsula National Park. Tobermory, Ontario. 5 pp.

  • Midewin National Tallgrass Prarie. 1998. Assessment of the reintroduction potential of five federally threatened and endangered plant species at midewin national tallgrass prarie (Hymenoxys herbacea). Zambrana Engineering Inc. 1-8 pp.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois. 507 pp.

  • Moran-Palma, P. and A.A. Snow. 1994. Effects of Interplant Distance on Mating Success in Lakeside Daisy HYMENOXYS HERBACEA. Research Report for the Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources- Manuscript. 20 pp.

  • Oldham, M. and T. Kraus. 2002. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E species evaulation form for Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea). Natural Heritage Information Centre for the Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1996. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1997. Correct authorship for the scientific name of Lakeside Daisy, Hymenoxys herbacea. Field Botanists of Ontario (FBO) Newsletter 10(3):11.

  • Oldham, M.J. and T. Kraus. 2002. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea). May 2002. Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. Unpublished report. 6 + appendices pp.

  • Voss, J. 1935. ACTINEA HERBACEA. Torreya 35:61-62.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1971. Contributions to an Illinois flora No. 4-Compositae II. (Tribe Heiantheae, Part 1-DYSSODIA, HELENIUM, GAILLARDIA, HYMENOXYS, HYMENOPAPPUS, and POLYMNIA). Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 64:317-327.

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