Hylocharis leucotis - (Vieillot, 1818)
White-eared Hummingbird
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hylocharis leucotis (Vieillot, 1818) (TSN 178069)
French Common Names: Saphir à oreilles blanches
Spanish Common Names: Zafiro Oreja Blanca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103273
Element Code: ABNUC25030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Apodiformes Trochilidae Hylocharis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hylocharis leucotis
Taxonomic Comments: This species was included in the genus Cynanthus by Johnsgard (1983). Howell and Webb (1958) and Dickinson (2003) placed this taxon in the genus Basilinna. It may constitute a superspecies with H. xantusii (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range from southwestern United States through much of Mexico to Nicaragua; many collection/observation sites and locations; presumed large population size; probably relatively stable; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2B (19Mar1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S1S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from southern Arizona, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas south through the highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras to north-central Nicaragua (AOU 1998). The species has been recorded irregularly in summer (and probably breeding) in the mountains of southwestern New Mexico (Animas Mountains) and western Texas (Big Bend, Guadalupe Mountains); northernmost populations are migratory southward (AOU 1998). Global elevational range extends from 900 to 3,100 meters (AOU 1998); in Arizona, the species occurs at elevations of 1,500-2,560 meters, with recent nesting documented at 2,195-2,316 meters (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences or subpopulations has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of observation/collection sites (e.g., see GBIF database, eBird) and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000 and may exceed 1,000,000. Rich et al. (2004) estimated population size at 2,000,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but area of occupancy and population size probably have been relatively stable or at least have not declined at a fast rate.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain, but overall distribution and abundance may not have changed very much, or perhaps have declined somewhat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from southern Arizona, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas south through the highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras to north-central Nicaragua (AOU 1998). The species has been recorded irregularly in summer (and probably breeding) in the mountains of southwestern New Mexico (Animas Mountains) and western Texas (Big Bend, Guadalupe Mountains); northernmost populations are migratory southward (AOU 1998). Global elevational range extends from 900 to 3,100 meters (AOU 1998); in Arizona, the species occurs at elevations of 1,500-2,560 meters, with recent nesting documented at 2,195-2,316 meters (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A hummingbird.
Reproduction Comments: Nesting occurs March-August in northern and central Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995), begins generally in June in Arizona (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005).Incubation by female, 14-16 days. Young fledge in 23-28 days. Two to three broods per year.
Ecology Comments: In Oaxaca, male territories averaged 430 sq m.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Northernmost populations are partially migratory, with the earliest migrants arriving in Arizona in March or April and departing primarily by late August or early September (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005). Seasonal movements vary greatly throughout the range (Johnsgard 1983).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes scrubby growth (especially undergrowth of Madrean evergreen oak forest in highlands), pine woods, pine-oak forest, high mountain fir forest, forest edge, forested mountain canyons, partially open mountain country with scattered trees and shrubs (including previously burned or cleared areas), gardens, and vacant lots with scattered shrubs and flowers. Nests usually are in shrubs (Guatemala) or in fairly low trees (e.g., in oaks in some areas of Mexico) (Johnsgard 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Food Comments: Diet includes nectar and arthropods. This species exhibits no preference for red flowers. Sometimes it forages (secretively) in the territories of larger hummingbird species.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 10 centimeters
Weight: 4 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hummingbirds

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: High potential for gene flow among populations of birds makes it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for hummingbirds; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering individuals (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (or fewer individuals for G1-G3 species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; a compromise between the often small home ranges of these birds, their great mobility, and the need for occurrences of reasonable size.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20May2015
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20May2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Baltosser, W. H., and P. E. Scott. 1996. Costa's Hummingbird (CALYPTE COSTAE). No. 251 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The Amerian Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bleiweiss, R., J. A. W. Kirsch, and J. C. Matheus. 1994. DNA-DNA hybridization evidence for subfamily structure among hummingbirds. Auk 111:8-19.

  • Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais, editors. 2005. Arizona breeding bird atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. x + 636 pp.

  • Dickinson, E.C. (Editor). 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 3rd edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 1039 pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Johnsgard, P. A. 1983c. Hummingbirds of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 304 pp.

  • Montgomerie, R. D. 1979. Energetics of foraging and competition in some tropcial hummingbirds. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

  • Ortiz-Pulido, R. and R. Díaz. 2001. Distribución de colibríes en la zona baja del centro de Veracruz, México. Ornitologia Neotropical 12:297-317.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Powers, D. R., and S. M. Wethington. 1999. Broad-billed Hummingbird (CYNANTHUS LATIROSTRIS). No. 430 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 20pp.

  • Rich, T. D., C. J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P. J. Blancher, M.S.W. Bradstreet, G. S. Butcher, D. W. Demarest, E. H. Dunn, W. C. Hunter, E. E. Iñigo-Elias, A. M. Martell, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, K. V. Rosenberg, C. M. Rustay, J. S. Wendt, T. C. Will. 2004. Partners in Flight North American landbird conservation plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY. Online. Available:

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Williamson, S. L. 2000. Blue-throated hummingbird (Lampornis clemenciae). No. 531 in A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 16pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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