Hydroptila wakulla - Denning, 1947
Wakulla Springs Vari-colored Microcaddisfly
Other English Common Names: Wakulla Springs varicolored microcaddisfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hydroptila wakulla Denning, 1947 (TSN 115693)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.111039
Element Code: IITRI40260
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Caddisflies
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Trichoptera Hydroptilidae Hydroptila
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N02CLE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hydroptila wakulla
Taxonomic Comments: Described as morphologically distinct from other hydroptila by Denning (1947). Female and immature stages remain unknown.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Jul2011
Global Status Last Changed: 20Aug2009
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This species range covers most of northern peninsular Florida and the eastern edge of the Panhandle, USA, but only approximately 10 occurrences are known (FNAI 2009).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (06Mar2009)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is known from Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Marion, Putnam, and Wakulla counties in Florida, USA (FNAI 2009). It's total range is approximately 30,000 square kilometers (FNAI 2009).

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Approximately 10 occurrences are known within a range of approximately 30,000 square kilometers (FNAI 2009).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are approximately 10 occurrences known for this species, although three are from prior to 1962 (FNAI 2009).

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Rasmussen et al. (2008) suggested that the population level be ranked as low.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Wakulla Springs is a popular tourist attraction, and as such is subject to human influences. Anything that affects water quality at this and other sites could affect this species. Additional impairment to large spring-run systems in Florida could have significant negative effects on the overall health of this species (Rasmussen et al., 2008).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: It has existed in the Wakulla system for the past 60 years suggesting that it may be stable, at least in the northern part of its range (Rasmussen et al. 2008).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: It has a patchy distribution and low abundance (Rasmussen et al. 2008).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Because of so few populations being known, this species probably has exacting requirements.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Surveys are needed in and around this species' known range in appropriate habitats.

Protection Needs: Water bodies near occurrences need to be protected from anything that adversely affects water quality, such as pollution, siltation or degradation of surrounding habitat.

Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) This species is known from Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Marion, Putnam, and Wakulla counties in Florida, USA (FNAI 2009). It's total range is approximately 30,000 square kilometers (FNAI 2009).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001)*, Columbia (12023)*, Gilchrist (12041)*, Hardee (12049)*, Highlands (12055)*, Hillsborough (12057)*, Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Putnam (12107), Wakulla (12129)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+*, Peace (03100101)+*, Hillsborough (03100205)+*, Tampa Bay (03100206)+*, Withlacoochee (03100208)+, Waccasassa (03110101)+*, Santa Fe (03110206)+*, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: Wakulla Springs vari-colored microcaddisfly
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Habitat Comments: Microhabitat of immature stages is not known (Deyrup and Franz, 1994).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Biological Research Needs: Female and immature stages remain unknown.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Caddisflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including larvae or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. Sight records and photographs, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences as identification of caddisflies often requires close examination of the genitalia of adult males. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Wiggins and Mackay (1978) found caddisfly distributions separated by trophic category as related to stream resource availability in Eastern streams; and to a lesser degree in Western streams. Shredders predominated in upstream habitats in relation to grazers and collectors, but the proportion of shredders became smaller downstream. Groups have also been separated ecologically into lotic-erosional (running water riffles), lotic-depositional (running water pools and margins), lentic-limnetic (standing water), lentic-littoral (standing water, shallow shore areas), lentic-profundal (standing water, basin), and beach zone (Wallace and Anderson, 1996). For the purpose of occurrence separation, however, the same genera or species often occur across habitats making such habitat classifications impractical.

Regardless of habitat, caddisfly adults tend to remain somewhat near the emergence site (LaFontaine, 1981; Collier and Smith, 1998) where oviposition occurs. Dispersal away from emergence sites tends to be negatively correlated with density of vegetation along the dispersal corridor; caddisflies tend to disperse shorter distances in dense forest compared with more open vegetation (Collier and Smith, 1998). Although dispersal flights are common especially from temporary habitats, such flights are relatively short and only occur immediately following emergence (unlike some Coleoptera and Hemiptera that also disperse additionally in autumn to overwinter) (Cummins and Merritt, 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) estimated that 85% of all adult Hydropsychidae were collected within 100 m of the water's edge with most of the remainder collected within 250 m, although significant, though small, numbers were collected up to 1845 m inland (esp. for Hexagenia). It is worth noting that in some instances, large river caddisflies may disperse a distance greater than five km from the river, suggesting long distance dispersal (Huryn and Harris, 2000; Kovats et al., 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) suggested this longer distance dispersal is likely accidental. Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have therefore been set at five km.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Justification: Use the Generic Element Occurrence Rank Specifications (2008).
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Mar2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Almquist, D.T. (2013)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Blickle, R.L. 1962. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of Florida. Florida Entomologist, 45: 153-155.

  • Blickle, R.L. 1979. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of America north of Mexico. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, Bulletin 509. 97 pp.

  • Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.

  • Deyrup, M. and R. Franz. 1994. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume IV. Invertebrates. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 798 pp.

  • Pescador, M.L., A.K. Rasmussen, and S.C. Harris. 1995. Identification manual for the caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae of Florida. Report to the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Florida, contract numbers WM543 and WM581. 132 pp.

  • Rasmussen, A. K. 2006. Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) records from the Florida A&M University database.

  • Rasmussen, A.K., D.R. Denson, and S.C. Harris. 2008. Status of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in greatest conservation need in Florida. Final report to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida, Agreement 06009, June 1, 2008. 56 pp.

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