Hybopsis amblops - (Rafinesque, 1820)
Bigeye Chub
Synonym(s): Notropis amblops (Rafinesque, 1820)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 163476)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104179
Element Code: AFCJB15020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 113

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hybopsis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lackner, R.N. Lea, and W.K. Scott. 1980. A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the US and Canada. 4th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication No. 12, Bethesda, Maryland. 174 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B80ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hybopsis amblops
Taxonomic Comments: Grose and Wiley (2002) used DNA data to examine the phylogenetic relationships of this and five other described species of the Hybopsis amblops species group, which they found to be monophyletic (also included was Hybopsis sp. cf. winchelli). See also Shaw et al. (1995, Occas. Pap. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. 172:1-28) for information on phylogenetic relationships among members of the amblops species group. The 2004 AFS checklist (Nelson et al. 2004) included these same species as the only members of the genus Hybopsis. In contrast, Hybopsis was treated as a subgenus of Notropis by Coburn and Cavender (1992). Many additional species that are currently placed in the genera Cyprinella and Notropis were placed in the genus Hybopsis by Mayden (1989). Further study of the interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes may result in changes to the current generic taxonomy (Nelson et al. 2004).

Hybopsis winchelli formerly was regarded as a subspecies of Hybopsis amblops; G. Clemmer (unpublished thesis) found amblops and winchelli to be specifically separable, and subsequent checklists (Robins et al. 1991, Nelson et al. 2004) have also recognized winchelli as a distinct species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread distribution in eastern and central U.S.; common to abundant in south, reduced in abundance or extirpated from many agricultural areas in north; sensitive to siltation.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Michigan (SH), Missouri (SNR), New York (S1S2), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S4), Tennessee (S5), Virginia (S3S4), West Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Lake Ontario and Lake Erie drainages, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan; Ohio River basin from New York to eastern Illinois and south to the Tennessee River drainage, Georgia and Alabama; Ozarks of southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and northeastern Oklahoma (absent from Missouri River drainage); Cottonwood River, Kansas (one record) (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but large. This species is common to abundant in southern part of range, declining in agricultural areas in the north (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: This fish is intolerant of water impoundment, siltation, and pollution.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Distribution and abundance have declined greatly in the north.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Protect stream drainages from overuse and development.

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Lake Ontario and Lake Erie drainages, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan; Ohio River basin from New York to eastern Illinois and south to the Tennessee River drainage, Georgia and Alabama; Ozarks of southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and northeastern Oklahoma (absent from Missouri River drainage); Cottonwood River, Kansas (one record) (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MO, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Lauderdale (01077), Limestone (01083)
GA Catoosa (13047), Dade (13083), Union (13291), Walker (13295), Whitfield (13313)
IL Champaign (17019), Clark (17023), Crawford (17033), Cumberland (17035)*, Edgar (17045), Effingham (17049)*, Kankakee (17091), Shelby (17173)*, Vermilion (17183)
IN Carroll (18015), Fulton (18049), Kosciusko (18085), Montgomery (18107), Parke (18121), Pulaski (18131), Tippecanoe (18157), White (18181)
MI Hillsdale (26059)*, Lenawee (26091)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009), Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Monroe (36055)*, Wyoming (36121)
OH Allen (39003)*, Ashtabula (39007), Athens (39009)*, Brown (39015)*, Champaign (39021), Clark (39023), Coshocton (39031), Cuyahoga (39035)*, Delaware (39041), Erie (39043), Fairfield (39045)*, Franklin (39049), Fulton (39051)*, Geauga (39055)*, Hancock (39063)*, Henry (39069)*, Highland (39071), Hocking (39073), Holmes (39075), Huron (39077), Knox (39083), Lake (39085), Licking (39089), Logan (39091)*, Lorain (39093), Lucas (39095)*, Miami (39109)*, Morrow (39117), Perry (39127), Pickaway (39129)*, Preble (39135), Putnam (39137)*, Richland (39139)*, Ross (39141), Seneca (39147)*, Vinton (39163)*, Williams (39171)*, Wood (39173)*
VA Lee (51105), Scott (51169), Washington (51191)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Detroit (04090004), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004)*, Upper Maumee (04100005)*, Tiffin (04100006)+, Auglaize (04100007)+*, Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)+*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Kiskiminetas (05010008), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Upper Ohio (05030101)*, Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Licking (05040006), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)*, Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)*, Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Rough (05110004), Salamonie (05120102), Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Wildcat (05120107)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Sugar (05120110)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Embarras (05120112)+*, Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114)+*, Upper White (05120201), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Collins (05130107), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Iroquois (07120002)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107)
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Little Red (11010014)*, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Frog-Mulberry (11110201)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Bigeye chub, Cyprinidae.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns from late spring to early summer.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes small to moderate size, clear-water tributaries with sand, gravel, or rocky bottom; usually near riffles in quiet water; often associated with aquatic vegetation (Page and Burr 2011). This species is exceptionally intolerant of siltation.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds probably on aquatic insects.
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Obtain life history information.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G. and R. Jennings
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Burr, B.M. 1991. The fishes of Illinois: an overview of a dynamic fauna. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 34:417-427.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook of fishes of Kansas. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. No. 45. 357pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Grose, M. J., and E. O. Wiley. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hybopsis amblops species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2002:1092-1097.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Animals. 101st ESPB Meeting, August 21, 1998. 16pp.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:473-500.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lackner, R.N. Lea, and W.K. Scott. 1980. A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the US and Canada. 4th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication No. 12, Bethesda, Maryland. 174 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1968. An assessment of changes in the fish fauna of two Illinois rivers and its bearing on their future. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 61:31-45.

  • Smith, P.W. 1971. Illinois streams: a classification based on their fishes and an analysis of factors responsible for disappearance of native species. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes No. 76. 14pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

  • Trautman, M.B. 1957. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus, OH. 683pp.

  • Warren, M.L., Jr. and B.M. Burr. 1988. Reassessment of the Illinois ranges of the bigeye chub, HYBOPSIS AMBLOPS, and the pallid shiner, NOTROPIS AMNIS. Ohio J. Sci. 88(5):181-183.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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