Hybognathus placitus - Girard, 1856
Plains Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hybognathus placitus Girard, 1856 (TSN 163361)
French Common Names: méné des plaines
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106124
Element Code: AFCJB16050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hybognathus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hybognathus placitus
Taxonomic Comments: See Schmidt (1994) for a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hybognathus based on morphological data.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 27Aug1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Moderately widespread in streams in central North America; substantial declines in abundance and distribution in some areas (Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and portions of Oklahoma); declining in the southern half of range and apparently stable in the northern portions of range; threatened by impoundments altering habitat and flow regimes; if northern populations begin to decline the rank should be reevaluated.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (28Aug1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (26Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (SX), Colorado (SH), Illinois (S2), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S2S3), Kentucky (S1), Missouri (S2), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S2), New Mexico (S3), North Dakota (SNR), Oklahoma (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S1), Texas (S4), Utah (SNA), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Saskatchewan (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (04May2012)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This small fish has a very limited distribution in Canada at only one or two locations, both of which are small streams subject to drought. The species requires long stretches of flowing water to complete its life cycle. Further threats to water supply from additional irrigation dams and excessive drought would increase risks to this species.

Status history: Designated Threatened in May 2012.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Vulnerable (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Missouri, Arkansas, Red, Brazos, and Colorado river drainages, from Montana and North Dakota south through Colorado and Kansas (Scheurer et al. 2003) to New Mexico and Texas; Mississippi River from mouth of Missouri River to Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been reported in Arkansas from the Arkansas, Mississippi, and Red rivers, but it is probably extirpated (Robison and Buchanan 1988). Species has been introduced into the Pecos drainage in New Mexico; also introduced in Utah (Lehtinen and Layzer 1988).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). In general, the number of occurrences appears to be low in Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, and in other states on the periphery of the range, but relatively large numbers of occurrences still exist in Oklahoma, Nebraska, Wyoming, North Dakota, and other northern portions of the range.

This is a small fish that inhabits large rivers and is difficult to survey (Ron Cicerello and Peggy Shute, pers. comm., 1998), so available data may not accurately reflect current distribution and abundance..

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. Page and Burr (2011) regarded this as "one of the most characteristic and common (sometimes abundant) fishes of Great Plains."

This species is considered to be abundant in the upper Missouri River watershed, whereas it is less numerous in areas farther south. During a 1993 survey, this was one of the most commonly collected species in the Little Missouri River, North Dakota (Kelsch 1994). During 1984-1988, Bazata et al. (1991) collected 208 individuals from 350 stream sites across Nebraska (excluding the Missouri River). This species is uncommon in the lower Mississippi River (Northern Prairie Research Center 1998).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats are related to water management and flow modifications. Diversion of water has resulted in changes in flow regime in both mainstem rivers and tributary streams. Construction of passage barriers, such as diversion dams and reservoirs, have both degraded and fragmented habitat. Introduced non-native species have become both predators and competitors with the plains minnow. For example, expansion in abundance and range of blackstripe topminnow, bluegill, largemouth bass, and creek chub was associated with a decline of plains minnow and other native fish populations in the Missouri River (Winston 2002). Other threats include hybridization, altered flow regimes, disturbance of riparian zones, and landscape scale changes that reduce the natural function of the stream ecosystem. Source: Rees et al. (2005).

The elimination of highly variable water levels, unstable streambeds, and fluctuating water temperatures are among the reasons for declines (Cross et al. 1985). The Northern Prairie Research Center (1995) indicated that the greatest threats are nonpoint source pollution and mainstem impoundments impacting natural flow regimes and other threats across the range include dewatering of rivers from irrigation and degradation of riparian areas.

Elimination of flood events has removed the historical cues for spawning and reduced the quality and quantity of available spawning habitat (Wilde and Ostrand 1999). Degradation of braided channel systems due to highly modified flow regimes (e.g., reduction of peak flows, flow stability, reduced turbidity) has contributed to the decline in plains minnow populations in some drainages, such as the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado (Cross and Moss 1987).

Declines in the Canadian River drainage (Oklahoma and Texas) were probably due to the reduced occurrence of large floods (Bonner and Wilde 2000). The impoundment of the Double Mountain Fork in the Brazos River may have resulted in the extirpation of the plains minnow from reaches above the dam (Wilde and Ostrand 1999).

Damming of the North Fork of the Red River in southwestern Oklahoma may have eliminated populations above the dam (Winston et al. 1991). Threats in New Mexico include impoundments and dewatering; the species is possibly eliminated above Ute Reservoir on the Canadian River (Bob Larson, pers. comm., 1998).

According to Eberle (1995), declines in Kansas might be tied to changes in flow regimes of rivers following dam construction and dewatering. Declines in the Arkansas River drainage have been attributed to the effects of impoundments, land use, diversion of surface flow for irrigation, and reduction of water table levels in response to mining of groundwater for irrigation (Cross and Moss 1987).

The degree of threat is not known across most of the range, but has been estimated by some heritage programs to range from very threatened to not very threatened; very threatened in Kansas (Bill Busby, pers. comm., 1998), not very threatened in North Dakota (Greg Power, pers. comm., 1998), and not very threatened to unthreatened in Kentucky (Ron Cicerello, pers. comm., 1998).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are still declining (Rees et al. 2005). Three generations are fewer than 10 years. The rate of decline probably is less than 30 percent over 10 years.

This species is doing relatively well in Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Nebraska, and Iowa, but its range has been restricted in some areas of these states (Rees et al. 2005). Stable populations exist in various areas, including streams in eastern Wyoming, western and central Nebraska, and western Kansas (Rees et al. 2005).. Populations in most other states in the range are in decline (Rees et al. 2005).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Over the long term, this species has undergone a large decline in distribution and abundance (Rees et al. 2005).

Baxter and Simon (1970) stated that plains minnows were virtually eliminated from the North Platte River, Wyoming, but indicated that the species is not really in trouble statewide. However, based on a comparison of 1960 data and sampling data from the 1990s, the species may be declining in Wyoming (Mary Neighbours, pers. comm., 1998).

According to Hesse (1994), plains/western silvery minnows were once considered abundant in Nebraska, but surveys over the past three decades indicate possible declines in some areas. During 1976-1978 Hesse (1994) collected 40 plains/silvery minnows from the lower Niobrara River while zero were collected in 1991. During Missouri River studies conducted from 1970-1993 the percent composition of seined plains/western silvery minnows in the channelized portion of the river was 27.1 in 1970 and zero in 1993; the percent composition of plains/western silvery minnows in the unchannelized Missouri River above and below Gavins Point Dam was less than one percent from 1983-1993 (Hesse 1994). Although declines have occurred in some areas of Nebraska, the species may be stable in the remainder of the state (Mike Fritz, pers. comm., 1998).

This species has undergone dramatic declines in abundance throughout Missouri in recent decades; if declines continue it may soon be extirpated from the state (Pflieger 1997).

Historically, plains minnows were considered abundant in Kansas rivers (Cross 1967), but more recently have been reported to have decreased substantially in the Arkansas, Smoky Hill, and Republican river drainages (Cross et al., 1985, Eberle 1995, Eberle et al. 1997). Historically this species was the most common fish of the Arkansas River system, but its abundance and distribution have decreased substantially in the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas (Cross and Moss 1987, Taylor and Miller 1990). It has declined to less than 1 percent of the overall fish population in the Arkansas River (Cross and Moss 1987). Plains minnows formerly were common and widespread in the Kansas River drainage but have declined dramatically throughout that system (Wenke et al 1993). The species may be extirpated from portions of the western Kansas River drainage, including the Republican, Solomon, Saline, and Smoky Hill rivers, and it is now rare in the lower portion of the Kansas River drainage (Cross and Moss 1987, Wenke et al. 1993).

This is "one of Oklahoma's ubiquitous species" but "recent declines...in the large rivers of Oklahoma are the cause of some concern (W. J. Matthews, pers. comm., 2003)" (Miller and Robison 2004). The species is rare or extirpated in many reaches of the Cimarron River, northwestern Oklahoma, where formerly abundant (Pigg 1987, Taylor and Miller 1990) and possibly extirpated from the North Fork of the Red River above Altus Dam (Winston et al. 1991).

Plains minnows historically were the dominant species in the Canadian River drainage in Oklahoma and Texas, but now they are very rare (Bonner and Wilde 2000). These fishes formerly were dominant in the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River, Texas, but now are extirpated from areas above the Lake Alan Henry Reservoir (Wilde and Ostrand 1999).

The species is probably extirpated in Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan 1988).

In New Mexico. Plains minnows are possibly extirpated from the Dry Cimarron River and the Canadian River above the Ute Reservoir; populations in in the Canadian River below Ute Reservoir are possibly stable (Bob Larson and David Propst, pers. comm., 1998). In the Pecos River, New Mexico, this introduced species is displacing the native Hybognathus amarus (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1997; Bob Larson, pers. comm., 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Missouri, Arkansas, Red, Brazos, and Colorado river drainages, from Montana and North Dakota south through Colorado and Kansas (Scheurer et al. 2003) to New Mexico and Texas; Mississippi River from mouth of Missouri River to Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been reported in Arkansas from the Arkansas, Mississippi, and Red rivers, but it is probably extirpated (Robison and Buchanan 1988). Species has been introduced into the Pecos drainage in New Mexico; also introduced in Utah (Lehtinen and Layzer 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ARextirpated, CO, IA, IL, KS, KY, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, WY
Canada SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001)*, Crawford (05033), Johnson (05071), Lafayette (05073)*, Logan (05083), Miller (05091)*, Mississippi (05093)*, Pope (05115)*, Pulaski (05119)*, Sebastian (05131), Yell (05149)*
KS Barber (20007), Clark (20025), Clay (20027), Cloud (20029), Comanche (20033), Doniphan (20043), Douglas (20045), Gove (20063), Jewell (20089), Johnson (20091), Kingman (20095), Leavenworth (20103), Logan (20109), Meade (20119), Pratt (20151), Republic (20157), Riley (20161), Sedgwick (20173), Trego (20195), Washington (20201), Wyandotte (20209)
KY Ballard (21007)*, Carlisle (21039)*, Fulton (21075)
MO Adair (29001)*, Andrew (29003), Atchison (29005), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Caldwell (29025)*, Callaway (29027), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carroll (29033), Chariton (29041), Clay (29047), Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Daviess (29061)*, Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Gentry (29075), Grundy (29079)*, Harrison (29081)*, Holt (29087), Howard (29089), Jackson (29095), Jefferson (29099)*, Johnson (29101)*, Lafayette (29107), Livingston (29117), Mercer (29129)*, Mississippi (29133), Moniteau (29135), Montgomery (29139), Nodaway (29147), Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157)*, Pettis (29159)*, Platte (29165), Putnam (29171), Ray (29177), Saline (29195), Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), Ste. Genevieve (29186)*, Stoddard (29207), Sullivan (29211), Warren (29219), Worth (29227)
NE Adams (31001), Blaine (31009)*, Boone (31011), Boyd (31015), Brown (31017), Buffalo (31019), Burt (31021), Butler (31023), Cass (31025), Cedar (31027)*, Cherry (31031), Colfax (31037), Cuming (31039), Custer (31041), Dakota (31043), Dawes (31045)*, Dawson (31047), Dixon (31051), Dodge (31053), Douglas (31055), Dundy (31057), Franklin (31061), Frontier (31063)*, Furnas (31065), Garden (31069), Gosper (31073), Greeley (31077), Hall (31079), Hamilton (31081), Harlan (31083)*, Hitchcock (31087), Holt (31089), Howard (31093), Johnson (31097), Kearney (31099), Keith (31101), Knox (31107)*, Lancaster (31109), Lincoln (31111), Loup (31115), Madison (31119), Merrick (31121), Morrill (31123), Nance (31125)*, Nemaha (31127), Nuckolls (31129), Otoe (31131), Pawnee (31133)*, Phelps (31137), Pierce (31139), Platte (31141), Polk (31143), Red Willow (31145), Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153), Saunders (31155), Scotts Bluff (31157), Sherman (31163), Sioux (31165), Stanton (31167), Thurston (31173), Valley (31175)*, Washington (31177), Wayne (31179)*, Webster (31181)
NM Chaves (35005)*, Colfax (35007)*, De Baca (35011), Eddy (35015)*, Guadalupe (35019)*, Harding (35021)*, Mora (35033)*, Quay (35037), San Miguel (35047)*, Union (35059)*
OK Adair (40001), Alfalfa (40003), Beaver (40007), Beckham (40009), Blaine (40011), Bryan (40013)*, Caddo (40015), Canadian (40017), Carter (40019), Cherokee (40021)*, Choctaw (40023), Cimarron (40025)*, Cleveland (40027), Comanche (40031)*, Cotton (40033), Creek (40037), Custer (40039), Dewey (40043), Ellis (40045), Garvin (40049), Grady (40051), Grant (40053), Greer (40055), Harmon (40057), Harper (40059), Haskell (40061)*, Hughes (40063), Jackson (40065), Jefferson (40067), Kay (40071), Kingfisher (40073), Kiowa (40075), Le Flore (40079)*, Lincoln (40081)*, Logan (40083), Love (40085), Major (40093), Marshall (40095), McClain (40087), McCurtain (40089), McIntosh (40091)*, Murray (40099)*, Muskogee (40101), Noble (40103)*, Nowata (40105)*, Okfuskee (40107)*, Oklahoma (40109), Okmulgee (40111)*, Osage (40113), Ottawa (40115)*, Pawnee (40117), Payne (40119), Pittsburg (40121)*, Pontotoc (40123), Pottawatomie (40125), Roger Mills (40129), Seminole (40133), Sequoyah (40135), Texas (40139)*, Tillman (40141), Tulsa (40143)*, Wagoner (40145)*, Washita (40149), Woods (40151), Woodward (40153)
SD Custer (46033), Jackson (46071), Mellette (46095), Pennington (46103), Todd (46121), Tripp (46123)
TN Lauderdale (47097), Obion (47131)
WY Campbell (56005), Johnson (56019), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Sheridan (56033), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
07 Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Whitewater (07140107)+, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+*, Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Obion (08010203)+, Lower Hatchie (08010208)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+*
10 Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Big Dry (10040105), Little Dry (10040106), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Middle Milk (10050004), Big Sandy (10050005), Peoples (10050009), Cottonwood (10050010), Whitewater (10050011), Lower Milk (10050012), Frenchman (10050013), Beaver (10050014), Rock (10050015), Porcupine (10050016), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Poplar (10060003), West Fork Poplar (10060004), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Big Muddy (10060006), Brush Lake closed basin (10060007), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Little Bighorn (10080016), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204), Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Big Porcupine (10100002), Rosebud (10100003), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Middle Little Missouri (10110203), Beaver (10110204), Lower Little Missouri (10110205), Antelope (10120101), Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Lance (10120104)+, Lightning (10120105)*, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Hat (10120108)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Redwater (10120203), Upper Heart (10130202), South Fork Grand (10130302), Lower Moreau (10130306), Bad (10140102), Upper White (10140201)+, Middle White (10140202)+, Little White (10140203)+, Ponca (10150001)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+*, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)*, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Horse (10180012)+*, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, St. Vrain (10190005)*, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012)*, Lower South Platte (10190018)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Wood (10200102)+, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+*, Dismal (10210002)+*, Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, South Loup (10210004)+, Mud (10210005)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Lower North Loup (10210007)+, Loup (10210009)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Logan (10220004)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Little Sioux (10230003)*, Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Boyer (10230007)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, West Nishnabotna (10240002), Nishnabotna (10240004)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+, Big Nemaha (10240008)+, Nodaway (10240010)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Platte (10240012)+*, Arikaree (10250001)+*, North Fork Republican (10250002)+, South Fork Republican (10250003)+*, Upper Republican (10250004)+, Frenchman (10250005)+*, Red Willow (10250007)+*, Harlan County Reservoir (10250009)+, Lower Sappa (10250011)+*, Little Beaver (10250013)*, Prairie Dog (10250015)*, Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Republican (10250017)+, Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001)*, Upper Smoky Hill (10260003)+, Ladder (10260004)+, Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007)*, Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009)*, Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011)*, Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012)*, Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014)*, Solomon (10260015)*, Upper Kansas (10270101)+, Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Big Blue (10270201)+*, Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Blackwater (10300104)+*, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005)*, Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)*, Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001)*, Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003)*, Coon-Pickerel (11030004)*, Pawnee (11030005)*, Buckner (11030006)*, Rattlesnake (11030009)*, Gar-Peace (11030010), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013)+, North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015)+, Ninnescah (11030016)+, Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+*, North Fork Cimarron (11040003)*, Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006)+, Crooked (11040007)+, Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008)+, Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001)+, Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002)+, Lower Cimarron (11050003)+, Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002)+, Medicine Lodge (11060003)+, Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004)+, Chikaskia (11060005)+, Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006)+, Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103)+*, Lower Verdigris (11070105)+*, Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Spring (11070207), Canadian headwaters (11080001)+, Cimarron (11080002)+, Upper Canadian (11080003)+, Conchas (11080005)+*, Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006)+, Ute (11080007)+*, Revuelto (11080008)+, Middle Canadian-Trujillo (11090101), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106)+, Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201)+, Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202)+, Little (11090203)+, Lower Canadian (11090204)+, Upper Beaver (11100101)+*, Middle Beaver (11100102)+, Coldwater (11100103)+, Palo Duro (11100104)+, Lower Beaver (11100201)+, Lower Wolf (11100203)+, Middle North Canadian (11100301)+, Lower North Canadian (11100302)+, Deep Fork (11100303)+*, Polecat-Snake (11110101)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Illinois (11110103)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Poteau (11110105)+*, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+*, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)+*, Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120103), Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120105)+, Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202)+, Middle North Fork Red (11120302)+, Lower North Fork Red (11120303)+, Elm Fork Red (11120304)+, Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101)+, Blue-China (11130102)+, North Pease (11130103), Farmers-Mud (11130201)+, Cache (11130202)+, West Cache (11130203)+, North Wichita (11130204), South Wichita (11130205), Southern Beaver (11130207), Northern Beaver (11130208)+*, Lake Texoma (11130210)+, Washita headwaters (11130301)+, Upper Washita (11130302)+, Middle Washita (11130303)+, Lower Washita (11130304)+, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Upper Little (11140107)+*, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201)+*, Lower Sulphur (11140302)+*
12 Salt Fork Brazos (12050007), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Middle Concho (12090103), Middle Colorado (12090106)
13 Pecos headwaters (13060001)+, Upper Pecos (13060003)+, Taiban (13060004)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+, Rio Hondo (13060008)+*, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: A medium-sized minnow, to five inches (plains minnow).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Egg laying may occur only during periods of high flow. Probably spawns communally (Lee et al. 1980). In north-central Oklahoma, reproducing females collected late April-July; ovarian weights peaked in June; females first spawned in their 2nd summer; apparently multiple peaks in spawning activity which may coincide with high water conditions (Lehtinen and Layzer 1988). In Cimarron River, Oklahoma, reproduction peaked in May and mid-summer; coincided with high or receding flows; individuals short-lived, most reproduced and died in their second summer (Taylor and Miller 1990).
Ecology Comments: Travels in schools. Has displaced H. AMARUS in Pecos River, New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes shallow sandy runs and pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011); silt-laden rivers, slower water and side pools of silty streams; large streams and rivers over beds of sand and silt with some current (Lehtinen and Layzer 1988); clear to highly turbid rivers and creeks with sandy bottoms, high levels of dissolved solids, and slight to moderate erratic flows (Sublette et al. 1990). Eggs probably are scattered over silt-bottomed backwaters.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Scrapes algae, diatoms, and other microflora from aufwuchs assemblage on rocks, snags, and plant roots on bottom or along stream margin (Sublette et al. 1990); may take some aquatic invertebrates as well.
Length: 13 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Biological Research Needs: Better information is needed on current distribution, abundance, and population trend.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Aug2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and M. K. Clausen
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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