Hybognathus nuchalis - Agassiz, 1855
Mississippi Silvery Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hybognathus nuchalis Agassiz, 1855 (TSN 163360)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105741
Element Code: AFCJB16040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hybognathus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hybognathus nuchalis
Taxonomic Comments: Here regarded as specifically distinct from H. regius and H. argyritis. Pflieger (1971) presented characters that he considered diagnostic in separating H. nuchalis and H. argyritis. Schmidt (1994) noted considerable variation in these characters and indicated that the reported distinction between these two taxa should receive further scrutiny.

Much of information published under the name H. nuchalis actually pertains to H. regius. The Rio Grande drainage population tentatively has been regarded as a distinct species, H. amarus, by some authors (and in this database); additional study is needed.

See Schmidt (1994) for a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hybognathus based on morphological data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S3?), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S3S4), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S3), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes lowland areas of the Mississippi River basin, from Ohio (formerly) to Wisconsin (and formerly Minnesota) south to Louisiana, formerly in eastern Tennessee; Gulf Coast drainages from the Mobile Bay basin, Alabama, to the Brazos River, Texas (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but large. This species is generally common but less so along the periphery of its range (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes lowland areas of the Mississippi River basin, from Ohio (formerly) to Wisconsin (and formerly Minnesota) south to Louisiana, formerly in eastern Tennessee; Gulf Coast drainages from the Mobile Bay basin, Alabama, to the Brazos River, Texas (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, OH, OK, TN, TX, WI, WYexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Autauga (01001)*, Baldwin (01003)*, Bibb (01007), Dallas (01047), Elmore (01051)*, Fayette (01057), Franklin (01059)*, Greene (01063), Marion (01093), Mobile (01097)*, Perry (01105), Pickens (01107), Sumter (01119), Tuscaloosa (01125), Washington (01129)*, Wilcox (01131)*
MN Dakota (27037)*, Fillmore (27045)*, Goodhue (27049)*, Houston (27055), Wabasha (27157)*, Winona (27169)
MO Adair (29001)*, Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Cape Girardeau (29031), Clark (29045), Dunklin (29069), Franklin (29071)*, Jefferson (29099)*, Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Marion (29127), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Osage (29151)*, Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Pike (29163)*, Ralls (29173), Ripley (29181), Scott (29201), Shannon (29203)*, St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), Ste. Genevieve (29186), Wayne (29223)
OH Miami (39109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Cahaba (03150202)+, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Lower Alabama (03150204)+, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Sipsey (03160107)+, Noxubee (03160108)+, Lower Black Warrior (03160113)+, Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)*, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Big Sandy (05070204)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Whitewater (05080003), Little Sandy (05090104)*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)*, Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)*, Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002)*, Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Lower French Broad (06010107)*, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)*, Lower Clinch (06010207)*, Emory (06010208)*, Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Duck (06040003)*, Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+*, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+*, Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007), Root (07040008)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105)*, Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201)*, West Fork Cedar (07080204)*, Middle Cedar (07080205)*, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Middle Iowa (07080208)*, Lower Iowa (07080209)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004)*, Kishwaukee (07090006), Middle Des Moines (07100004)*, North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, North Fabius (07110002)+*, South Fabius (07110003)+*, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+, Salt (07110007)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Upper Fox (07120006)*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202)*, Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207)*, Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Little (08040304), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202)*, Tickfaw (08070203), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*
10 Little Sioux (10230003)*, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+*, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014)*, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)*, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)*, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Cadron (11110205)*, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Lower Angelina (12020005), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Eggs hatch in about a week. Sexually mature at age 1-2 (Becker 1983).
Ecology Comments: A schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes pools and backwaters of low-gradient creeks and small to large rivers (Page and Burr 2011).
Food Comments: Digests algae and other organic matter ingested in mud and bottom ooze (Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 18 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than many kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • EDWARDS, ROBERT J. AND SALVADOR CONTRERAS-BALDERAS. 1991. HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE LOWER RIO GRANDE (RIO BRAVO DEL NORTE), TEXAS AND MEXICO. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 36(2):201-212.

  • Etnier, D. A., W. C. Starnes, B. H. Bauer. 1979. Whatever Happened to the Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus nuchalis) In the Tennessee River? Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings, No. 7. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 3 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T., and K. P. Schmidt.  Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus nuchalis (Agassiz).   In:  Fishes of Minnesota.  J. T. Hatch, G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors.  In preparation.

  • Long Term Reasource Monitoring Program (LTRMP).  2013.  Mississippi River pools 4 and 8 fish survey data (1989-2015).  LTRMP Fisheries Data, Graphical Fish Database Browser [web application].  Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, USGS, La Crosse, Wisconsin.  <http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/data_library/fisheries/graphical/fish_front.html>.  Accessed 11 April 2013. 

  • Lyons, J., P. A. Cochran, and D. Fago. 2000. Wisconsin fishes 2000: status and distribution. University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Madison, Wisconsin. 87 pp.

  • Lyons, J., P. C. Hanson, E. A. White.  2006.  A photo-based computer system for identifying Wisconsin fishes.  Fisheries  31(6):269-275.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • NatureServe.  2009.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 29 May 2009.  

  • NatureServe.  2013.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 13 April 2013.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1971. A distributional study of Missouri fishes. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 20:225-570.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P., and N. Proulx. 2009. Status and critical habitat of rare fish species in the Mississippi River from the Coon Rapids Dam to the Iowa border. Final report submitted to the State Wildlife Grants Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 29 pp.

  • Schmidt, T. R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1994:622-630.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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