Hybognathus hayi - Jordan, 1885
Cypress Minnow
Other English Common Names: cypress minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hybognathus hayi Jordan, 1885 (TSN 163364)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102650
Element Code: AFCJB16030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hybognathus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hybognathus hayi
Taxonomic Comments: See Schmidt (1994) for a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hybognathus based on morphological data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Feb2012
Global Status Last Changed: 14Feb2012
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (14Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Florida (S1S2), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S2), Kentucky (S1), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S1), Oklahoma (S1), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Ohio and Mississippi river basins from southwestern Indiana (at least formerly) and southern Illinois to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from the Escambia River, Florida and Alabama, to the Sabine River, Texas; most populations occur on the Former Mississippi Embayment, but the species occurs above the Fall Line in a few areas (e.g., Tennessee River in northern Alabama) (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is locally common in the core of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats are not well documented but presumably include impoundments and pollution. In Missouri, conversion of wetlands to agricultural fields and urban areas has decreased the habitat of this fish, which probably never was common or widespread in the state (Missouri Department of Conservation).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: This species is sporadic or rare, or has declined dramatically in abundance, in much of the range periphery in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, Florida, and Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan 1988, Warren and Burr 1989); however, the historical range within most of these states was quite small. The species has been collected in Indiana since the early 1940s (known from 4 localities). It was rediscovered only somewhat recently in Missouri and Illinois.

The species may be extirpated in the southern bend of the Tennessee River in Alabama, and it may eventually disappear from other large impounded rivers in Alabama, particularly the Tombigbee (Boschung and Mayden 2004). In contrast, in the core of the range, recent collections in the Big Black, Pascagoula, Pearl, and Tombigbee drainages of Mississippi suggest that the species is apparently maintaining its populations in most of the state (Ross 2001).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Ohio and Mississippi river basins from southwestern Indiana (at least formerly) and southern Illinois to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from the Escambia River, Florida and Alabama, to the Sabine River, Texas; most populations occur on the Former Mississippi Embayment, but the species occurs above the Fall Line in a few areas (e.g., Tennessee River in northern Alabama) (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Dallas (01047), Perry (01105)
FL Escambia (12033)*, Santa Rosa (12113)*
IL Adams (17001), Alexander (17003), Jefferson (17081)*, Johnson (17087)*, Pulaski (17153)*, Union (17181)*, Washington (17189)*
KY Ballard (21007), Carlisle (21039), Daviess (21059), Fulton (21075)*, Graves (21083), Hickman (21105), Hopkins (21107)*, McCracken (21145)
MO Butler (29023)*, Dunklin (29069), New Madrid (29143), Pemiscot (29155)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Conecuh (03140301), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202)+, Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)*, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Lower Green (05110005)+, Pond (05110006)+, Patoka (05120209), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002)*, Pickwick Lake (06030005)*, Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 The Sny (07110004)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+*, Cache (07140108)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302)*, Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201)*, Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205)*, Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Deer-Steele (08030209), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Little (08040304), Boeuf (08050001), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Homochitto (08060205)*, Buffalo (08060206), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205)
11 Upper Black (11010007)+*, Upper White-Village (11010013), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201)*, Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205)*, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: In Kentucky, females begin to ripen with mature eggs in early March, fully gravid in April; sexually mature in 1 year; probably does not live more than 3-4 years (Warren and Burr 1989).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes sluggish pools and backwaters of low gradient streams, oxbow lakes, cypress lakes; this species occurs over soft substrates, usually sand overlain with silt and detritus or mud. Eggs are scattered over the bottom (Warren and Burr 1989).
Food Comments: Presumably feeds on ooze and algae (Smith 1979). Adults from Kentucky contained sand, detritus, algae, and other vegetable matter (Warren and Burr 1989).
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Burr, B.M. and R.L. Mayden. 1982. Status of the cypress minnow, HYBOGNATHUS HAYI Jordan, in Illinois. Chicago Acad. Sci. Nat. Hist. Misc. 215:1-10.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • Schmidt, T. R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1994:622-630.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., and B. M. Burr. 1989. Distribution, abundance, and status of the cypress minnow, Hybognathus hayi, an Illinois endangered species. Natural Areas Journal 9:163-168.

  • Warren, M.L., Jr. and B.M. Burr. 1989. Distribution, abundance, and status of the cypress minnow, HYBOGNATHUS HAYI, an Illinois endangered species. Nat. Areas J. 9:163-168.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

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