Hybognathus hankinsoni - Hubbs, 1929
Brassy Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs in Jordan, 1929 (TSN 163363)
French Common Names: méné laiton
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103021
Element Code: AFCJB16020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hybognathus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hybognathus hankinsoni
Taxonomic Comments: See Schmidt (1994) for a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hybognathus based on morphological data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in central North America; often abundant where it is found; tolerant of a variety of aquatic habitats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S3), Illinois (S1S2), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S1), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S3), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S4), New York (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Dakota (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S1), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S4), Manitoba (S4), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S3S4), Saskatchewan (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (High) (05Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain drainages, Quebec and Vermont, across the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Missouri-upper Mississippi river basins of southern Canada and northern U.S. south to Colorado and Missouri (Scheurer et al. 2003); MacKenzie River system (Arctic Basin), Alberta; Fraser River system (Pacific Slope), British Columbia (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but apparently large (likely greater than 100,000). This species is common in some areas (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain drainages, Quebec and Vermont, across the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Missouri-upper Mississippi river basins of southern Canada and northern U.S. south to Colorado and Missouri (Scheurer et al. 2003); MacKenzie River system (Arctic Basin), Alberta; Fraser River system (Pacific Slope), British Columbia (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, IA, IL, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NY, PAexotic, SD, UTexotic, VT, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013)
KS Cheyenne (20023), Doniphan (20043), Jewell (20089), Leavenworth (20103), Republic (20157), Sherman (20181), Trego (20195), Wyandotte (20209)*
MO Adair (29001), Atchison (29005), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Caldwell (29025), Gentry (29075), Grundy (29079), Lewis (29111), Macon (29121), Marion (29127), Moniteau (29135), Platte (29165), Putnam (29171), Schuyler (29197), Sullivan (29211)
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006)*, Upper Hudson (02020001)*, Sacandaga (02020002)*, Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)*, Middle Hudson (02020006)
04 Beaver-Lester (04010102), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Pike-Root (04040002)*, Milwaukee (04040003), Kalamazoo (04050003), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), Salmon-Sandy (04140102)*, Black (04150101)*, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)*, Oswegatchie (04150302), Grass (04150304)*, Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306)*, English-Salmon (04150307)*, Winooski River (04150403)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Crow Wing (07010106), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Chicago (07120003), Upper Fox (07120006)
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Upper Sheyenne (09020202), Maple (09020205), Red Lakes (09020302), Thief (09020304), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Snake (09020309), Roseau (09020314), Vermilion (09030002), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008)
10 Smith (10030103), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Box Elder (10040204), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Middle Milk (10050004), Big Sandy (10050005), Sage (10050006), Peoples (10050009), Cottonwood (10050010), Whitewater (10050011), Lower Milk (10050012), Frenchman (10050013), Beaver (10050014), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Poplar (10060003), West Fork Poplar (10060004), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Big Muddy (10060006), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Lake Sakakawea (10110101), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Hat (10120108), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Lower Heart (10130203), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Cedar (10130205), Crow (10140105), Ponca (10150001), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Upper James (10160003), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Vermillion (10170102), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Upper Laramie (10180010), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)*, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Big Thompson (10190006)*, Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009)*, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Pawnee (10190014), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Sidney Draw (10190017), Lower South Platte (10190018)*, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Salt (10200203), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Lower North Loup (10210007), Loup (10210009), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), West Nishnabotna (10240002), Nishnabotna (10240004)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Arikaree (10250001)+, North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003)+, Frenchman (10250005), Medicine (10250008), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Middle Republican (10250016)+, Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001)*, North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002)+, Upper Smoky Hill (10260003)+, Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Upper Grand (10280101)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)*, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
17 Fraser (17110001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (minnow).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring. Eggs hatch in a week to 10 days. Sexually mature at age 1-2 (Becker 1983).
Ecology Comments: A schooling species (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, TEMPORARY POOL
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes small, clear, sluggish weedy creeks or small rivers with sand, gravel, or mud bottom overlain with organic sediment; this species also is common in cool, stained or acid waters of boggy streams, ponds, and lakes, and it is common in overflow ponds near rivers. Spawning occurs among vegetation in shallows and in flooded marshes. Eggs are scattered on vegetation and on the bottom (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats algae, phyto- and zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, surface drift, bottom ooze (Becker 1983).
Phenology Comments: Winters in pools and deep runs under shelter or buried in debris (Becker 1983).
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Little is known of the breeding biology of this species (B73SCO01NAUS).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Feb2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cannings, S. G., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bailey, R. M. 1954. Distribution of the American cyprinid fish, Hybognathus hankinsoni, with comments on its original desription. Copeia (4):289-291.

  • Beaulieu, H. 1992. Liste des espèces de la faune vertébrée susceptibles d'être désignées menacées ou vulnérables. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 107 p.

  • Bergeron, J.F. et J. Brousseau. 1983. Guide des poissons d'eau douce du Québec. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. Direction générale de la faune. 217

  • Bernatchez L. et M. Giroux. 2000. Les poissons d'eau douce du Québec et leur répartition dans l'est du Canada. Broquet. 350 pages

  • Bernatchez, L. et Giroux, M. 1991. Guide des poissons d'eau douce du Québec: leur distribution dans l'Est du Canada. Éditions Broquet Inc. 304 p.

  • Copes, F. 1975. Ecology of the brassy minnow, Hybognathus hankinsoni (Hubbs). Univ. Wis., Stevens Point, Mus. Nat. Hist.Fauna and Flora Wis. Part III Rep. No. 10:46-72f.

  • Dauten, J. et al. 1998. Draft element occurrence data standard. The Nature Conservancy in cooperation with the Network of Natural Heritage program and conservation data centers. 188 p.

  • Dubé, J., J. Brisebois et L.-M. Soyez. 1990. Évaluation biologique du Ruisseau à Charrette, Pointe-Fortune, MRC Vaudreuil-Soulanges. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Service de l'aménagement et de l'exploitation de la faune, Direction ré

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • McAllister, D. E. 1974. Poissons de la région de la capitale du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement, Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer, Ottawa. 200 p.

  • McCulloch, B.R., J.R. Duncan, and R.J. Keith. 1993. Fish survey of the Saskatchewan portion of the Missouri River Basin. Report to Saskatchewan Environment, Regina, SK. 15 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.7. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Available at .

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Ripley, T. 2001. 2000/2001 Brassy Minnow (Hybognathus hankinsoni) Inventory at Musreau Lake and Outlet. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 6, Edmonton, AB. 10 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scheurer, J. A., K. R. Bestgen, and K. D. Fausch. 2003. Resolving taxonomy and historic distribution for conservation of rare Great Plains fishes: Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in eastern Colorado basins. Copeia 2003:1-12.

  • Schlosser, I.J. 1988. Predation rates and the behavioral response of brassy minnow (Hybognathus hankinsoni) to creek chub and smallmouth bass predators. Copeia 3: 691-697

  • Schmidt, T. R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1994:622-630.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec. 2003. Les espèces menacées [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site Internet. - Accès :«http://www.fapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/etu_rec/esp_mena_vuln/index.htm». La société, 2003 [Réf. 3 novembre 2003] .

  • Sylvester, R.M. 2004. Upper Missouri River basin aquatic gap fish distribution model accuracy assessment and White Sucker, Catostomus commersonii, population characteristics in the upper Missouri River basin. M.Sc. Thesis. South Dakota State University. 182pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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