Hudsonia montana - Nutt.
Mountain Golden-heather
Other Common Names: mountain goldenheather
Synonym(s): Hudsonia ericoides ssp. montana (Nutt.) Nickerson & Skog
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Hudsonia montana Nutt. (TSN 22276)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.150303
Element Code: PDCIS03020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rock-Rose Family
Image 12043

Public Domain

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Violales Cistaceae Hudsonia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Hudsonia montana
Taxonomic Comments: Generally regarded as a distinct species, but has also been treated (by Nickerson and Skog) as a subspecies of Hudsonia ericoides. Maintained as a distinct species by Kartesz (1980, 1994, 1999), Morse (1979 thesis and 1981 status report), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, U.S. Forest Service, and numerous other sources.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 16Apr1985
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A narrow endemic of two adjacent counties in western North Carolina, where it is restricted to local, unusually dry habitats. There are seven known populations, five of them along the rim of a single Blue Ridge Escarpment gorge. Barring regional or global climate change, and provided the populations are reasonably protected from rock climbers and hikers (a proposed trail, since re-routed, would have cut directly through two of the populations), the species could persist indefinitely at these few sites. However, historical fire suppression and visitor impacts continue to be threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (20Oct1980)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Very narrow endemic, known from only two adjacent North Carolina counties; east rim of Linville Gorge, within 8km. of Table Rock Mountain, and 2 pops. about 20 miles distant from Linville Gorge.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Six to seven primary element occurrences corresponding to 33 sub EOs (USFWS 2012).

Population Size Comments: Difficult to determine because of its growth habit (spreading); adjacent clumps may have originated by clonal spread from a single individual. At the last census, 4, 937 clumps of plants counted (USFWS 2012).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Fire suppression is a major threat. Threatened by succession and human disturbance through trampling near campsites and day use areas. Threats include loss of habitat through competition, trampling, erosion due to alteration of water flow, collection, and predation of seeds (Gross et al. 1998; Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002; Weakley 2008; USFWS 2012).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Very narrow endemic, known from only two adjacent North Carolina counties; east rim of Linville Gorge, within 8km. of Table Rock Mountain, and 2 pops. about 20 miles distant from Linville Gorge.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Burke (37023), McDowell (37111)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A low, spreading shrub, not over 3-4 dm tall, with evergreen, needle-like leaves. Bright yellow flowers bloom in June and July.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Barrens, Cliff, Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Shallow soils that form over quartzite or mica gneiss rock ledges. Usually in the sparsely vegetated ecotone between bare rock and heath bald.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Aug2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, Larry E. (1985), rev. Mansberg. L. (6/96), rev. Maybury, K., rev. L. Morse (2000), rev. A. Tomaino (2008), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anonymous. 1987. Mountain golden-heather discovered outside of Linville Gorge. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program Newsletter Summer/Fall: 8.

  • Center for Plant Conservation (CPC). 2008. Last update January 29. National Collection Plant Profile: Hudsonia montana. Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis Missouri. Online. Available: http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ (accessed 24 September 2008).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 6. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae to Droserceae. Oxford University Press, New York. 496 pp + xxiv.

  • Gross, K, J.R. Lockwood, C.C. Frost, and M.F. Morris. 1998. Modeling controlled burning and trampling reduction for conservation of Hudsonia montana. Conservation Biology 12(6): 1291-1301.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. Vol. 2. The biota of North America. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 500 pp.

  • Kruckeberg, A.R., and D. Rabinowitz. 1985. Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. Ecological Systems 16: 447-479.

  • Morse, L.E. 1979a. Report on the conservation status of Hudsonia montana, a candidate endangered species. New York Botanical Garden, Cooperative Parks Study Unit, Bronx, NY. 37 pp.

  • Morse, L.E. 1979b. Systematics and ecological biogeography of the genus Hudsonia (Cistaceae), the sand heathers. Ph. D. Dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Mountain golden heather (Hudsonia montana) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4127.pdf.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2008. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, northern Florida, and surrounding areas. Working Draft of 7 April 2008. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2008).

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